Change Your Brain, Change Your Body



The information in Change Your Brain, Change Your Body is based on more than 600 sources, including scientific studies, books, interviews with medical experts, statistics from government agencies and health organizations, and other reliable resources. Printed out, the references take up more than 100 pages. In an effort to save a few trees, I have decided to place them exclusively here on the Change Your Brain, Change Your Body website.

Chapter 1 The Brain-Body Solution

Amen, D.G.Change Your Brain, Change Your Life. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2000.

Amen, D.G.Making a Good Brain Great. New York: Harmony Books, 2005.

Amen, D.G. and J. Payne.Making a Good Brain GreatHigh School Course, 2005.

Amen, D.G.Magnificent Mind at Any Age. New York: Harmony Books, 2008.

Bowman, S.A. 2006. Television-viewing characteristics of adults: correlations to eating practices and overweight and health status,Preventing Chronic DiseaseVol 3: No. 2, April.

Derbyshire, D. 2009. Social websites harm children’s brains: Chilling warning to parents from top neuroscientist,Daily Mail/MailOnline, February 24.

Hart, A., 2007.Thrilled to Death, New York: Thomas Nelson.

Kessler, D., MD. 2009.The End of Overeating,New York: Rodale.

Patterson, K., Grenny, J., Maxfield, D., McMillan, R., Switzler, A., 2008.Influencer, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chapter 2 The Craving Solution

Berlin, I., et al. 2004. Effect of glucose on tobacco craving. Is it mediated by tryptophan and serotonin?Psychopharmacology178(1):27-34. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-004-1980-x.

Fernstorm, J.D., Wurtman, R.J. 1971. Brain serotonin content: increase following ingestion of carbohydrates.Science174(4013):1023-1025.

Fullerton, D.T., C.J. Getto, W.J. Swift, et al. 1985. Sugar, opioids, and binge eating.Brain Research Bulletin14(6):673-80.

Gailliot, M.T., Baumeister, R.F. 2007. The physiology of willpower: linking blood glucose to self-control.Personality and Social Psychology Review11:303. DOI:10.1177/1088868307303030.

Lenoir, M., F. Serre, L. Cantin, et al. 2007. Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward.PLoS One2(1):e698.

Levine, A.S., C.M. Kotz, and B.A. Gosnell. 2003. Sugars: Hedonic aspects, neuroregulation, and energy balance.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition78(4):834S-842S.

McRobbie, H., Hajek, P. 2004. Effect of glucose on tobacco withdrawal symptoms in recent quitters using bupropion or nicotine replacement.Human Psychopharmacology19(1):57-61.

Pelchat, M.L., A. Johnson, R. Chan, et al. 2004. Images of desire: Food-craving activation during fMRI.Neuroimage23(4):1486-93.

Rolls, E.T. 2006. Brain mechanisms underlying flavour and appetite.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences361(1471):1123-36.

Stice, E., S. Spoor, C. Bohon, et al. 2008. Relation of reward from food intake and anticipated food intake to obesity: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.Journal of Abnormal Psychiatry117(4):924-935.

Volkow, N.D. and R.A. Wise. 2005. How can drug addiction help us understand obesity?Nature Neuroscience8(5):555-60.

Wang, G.J., N.D. Volkow, J. Logan, et al. 2001. Brain dopamine and obesity.Lancet357(9253):354-7.

Wang. G.J., N.D. Volkow, P.K. Thanos, et al. 2004. Similarity between obesity and drug addiction as assessed by neurofunctional imaging: A concept review.Journal of Addictive Disorders23(3):39-53.

West, R. 2001. Glucose for smoking cessation: does it have a role?CNS Drugs15(4):261-265.

Wilson, G. D.

Wise, R.A. 2004. Dopamine, learning, and motivation.Nature Reviews. Neuroscience5(6):483-94.

Chapter 3 The Weight Solution

Akbaraly, T.N.,Kivimäki, M.,Brunner, E.J.,Chandola, T.,Marmot, M.G.,Singh-Manoux, A.,Ferrie, J.E. 2009. Association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults: results from the Whitehall II study.Diabetes Care32(3):499-504

Avena, N.M., P. Rada, and B.G. Hoebel. 2008. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake.Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews32(1):20-39.

Bolocofsky, D. N., Coulthard-Morris, L., Spinier, D. 1984. Prediction of successful weight management from personality and demographic data.PsychologicalReports55:795-802.

Bolocofsky, D. N., Spinler, D., Coulthard-Morris, L. 1985. Effectiveness of hypnosis as an adjunct to behavioral weight management.Joumal of Clinical Psychology41:35-40.

Bray, G.A., S.J. Nielsen, and B.M. Popkin. 2004. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition79(4):537-43.

Broadhurst, C.L., Domenico, P. 2006. Clinical studies on chromium picolinate supplementation in diabetes mellitus—a review.Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics8(6):677-87.

Calugi, S., Dalle Grave, R., Marchesini, G. 2009. Night eating syndrome in class II-III obesity: metabolic and psychopathological features.International Journal of Obesity33(8):899-904.

Crawford, V., Scheckenbach, R., Preuss, H.G. 1999. Effects of niacin-bound chromium supplementation on body composition in overweight African-American women.Diabetes Obesity Metababolism1(6):331-7.

Davidson, J.R.,Abraham, K.,Connor, K.M.,McLeod, M.N. 2003. Effectiveness of chromium in atypical depression: a placebo-controlled trial.Biological Psychiatry53(3):261-4.

Davies, K.M., Heaney, R.P., Recker, R.R., Lappe, J.M., Barger-Lux, M.J., Rafferty, K., Hinders, S. 2000. Calcium intake and body weight.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism85(12):4635-8.

Docherty, J.P.,Sack, D.A.,Roffman, M.,Finch, M.,Komorowski, J.R. 2005. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory trial of chromium picolinate in atypical depression: effect on carbohydrate craving.Journal of Psychiatric Practice11(5):302-14.

Health Implications of Obesity. NIH Consens Statement Online 1985 Feb 11-13; 5(9):1-7.

Johnson, D.L., Karkut, R.T. 1996.Participation in multicomponent hypnosis treatment programs for women’s weight loss with and without overt aversion.Psychological Reports79(2):659-68.

Kirsch, I. 1996.Hypnotic enhancement of cognitive-behavioral weight loss treatments–another meta-reanalysis.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology64(3):517-9.

Kroger, W. 1970. Comprehensive management of obesity.American Joumal ofClinical Hypnosis12:165-176.

Lau, F.C., Bagchi, M., Sen, C.K., Bagchi, D. 2008. Nutrigenomic basis of beneficial effects of chromium (III) on obesity and diabetes.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry317(1-2):1-10.

Levy, L.D., Fleming, P., Klar, D. 2009. Treatment of refractory obesity inseverely obese adults following management of newly diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.International Journal of Obesity33:326–334.

Lundgren, J.D., Amsterdam, J., Newberg, A., Allison, K.C., Wintering, N., Stunkard, A.J. 2009. Differences in serotonin transporter binding affinity in patients with major depressive disorder and night eating syndrome.Eating and Weight Disorders14(1):45-50.

McElroy, S.L.,Guerdjikova, A.I.,Martens, B.,Keck, P.E. Jr,Pope, H.G.,Hudson, J.I. 2009. Role of antiepileptic drugs in the management of eating disorders.CNS Drugs23(2):139-56.

Micallef, M., Munro, I., Phang, M., Garg, M. 2009. Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are negatively associated with obesity.British Journal of Nutrition19:1-5.

Milionis, H.J.,Florentin, M.,Giannopoulos, S. 2008. Metabolic syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease: a link to a vascular hypothesis?CNS Spectrums13(7):606-13.

Pittler, M.H., Ernst, E. 2005.Complementary therapies for reducing body weight: a systematic review.International Journal of Obesity29(9):1030-8.

Preuss, H.G., Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M. 2002. Protective effects of a novel niacin-bound chromium complex and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on advancing age and various aspects of syndrome X.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences957:250-9.

Preuss, H.G., Wallerstedt, D., Talpur, N., Tutuncuoglu, S.O., Echard, B., Myers, A., Bui, M., Bagchi, D. 2000. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypecholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study.Journal of Medicine31(5-6):227-46.

Pulkki-Råback, L. et al. 2009. Depressive symptoms and the metabolic syndrome in childhood and adulthood: a prospective cohort study.Health Psychology28(1):108-16.

Raji, C.A., et al. 2009. Brain structure and obesity.Human Brain Mappingpublished online August 6, DOI: 10.1002/hbm.20870.

Chapter 4 The Nutrition Solution

Amen, D.G.Healing ADD.New York: Berkley Books, 2001.

Amen, D.G.Making a Good Brain Great. New York: Harmony Books, 2005.

Amen, D.G. and J. Payne.Making a Good Brain GreatHigh School Course, 2005.

Amen, D.G.Magnificent Mind at Any Age. New York: Harmony Books, 2008.


Blaylock, R.L.Excitotoxins: The Taste That Kills. Santa Fe: Health Press, 1997.

Compiled by researchers, physicians, and artificial sweetener experts for Mission Possible, a group dedicated to warning consumers about aspartame.

Department of Health and Human Services, Report on All Adverse Reactions in the Adverse Reaction Monitoring System, February 25 and 28, 1994.

FDA Adverse Reaction Monitoring System.

FDA Searle Investigation Task Force. Final Report of Investigation of G.D. Searle Company, 3/24/1976.

Hearing Before the Committee On Labor and Human Resources United States Senate, First Session on Examing the Health and Safety Concerns of Nutrasweet (Aspartame).

Monte, W.C. 1984. Aspartame: Methanol and the Public Health,Journal of Applied Nutrition36 (1):42-53.

Mullarkey, B., Aspartame Time Line,Informed Consent MagazineMay/June 1994.

Mullarkey, B. How Safe Is Your Artificial Sweetener (account of John Cook),Informed Consent MagazineSeptember/October 1994.

Safety of Amino Acids, Life Sciences Research Office, FASEB, FDA Contract No. 223-88-2124, Task Order No. 8.

Testimony of Dr. Jacqueline Verrett, FDA Toxicologist before the U.S. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, 11/3/1987.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, No. 84-1153 Community Nutrition Institute and Dr. Woodrow Monte v. Dr. Mark Novitch, Acting Commissioner, US FDA 9/24/1985.

Wurtman and Walker, Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function. Proceedings of the First International Meeting on Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function, Washington, D.C., May 8, 1987.


Peterson, D.W., George, R.C., Scaramozzino, F., Lapointe, N.E., Anderson, R.A., Graves, D.J., Lew, J. 2009. Cinnamon extract inhibits tau aggregation associated with Alzheimer’s disease in vitro.Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease17(3):585-597.


Akhondzadeh, S., Basti, A., Moshiri, E., Noorbala, A.A., Jamshidi, A.H., Abbasi, S.H., 2007. Comparison of petal of Crocus sativus L. and fluoxetine in the treatment of depressed outpatients: a pilot double-blind randomized trial.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry31(2):439-42.

Moshiri, E., Basti, A.A., Noorbala, A.A., Jamshidi, A.H., Hesameddin, Abbasi, S., Akhondzadeh, S. 2006. Crocus sativus L. (petal) in the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.Phytomedicine13(9-10):607-11.

Akhondzadeh, S., Tahmacebi-Pour, N., Noorbala, A.A., Amini, H., Fallah-Pour, H., Jamshidi, A.H., Khani, M. 2005. Crocus sativus L. in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.Phytotherapy Research19(2):148-51.

Akhondzadeh, S., Fallah-Pour, H., Afkham, K., Jamshidi, A.H., Khalighi-Cigaroudi, F. 2004. Comparison of Crocus sativus L. and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a pilot double-blind randomized trial.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine4:12.


Kennedy, D.O., Scholey, A.B. 2006. The psychopharmacology of European herbs with cognition-enhancing properties.Current Pharmaceutical Design12(35):4613-23.


Masoumi, A., et al. 2009. 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 interacts with curcuminoids to stimulate amyloid-ß clearance by macrophages of Alzheimer’s disease patients.Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease17(3):703-717.

—, The school food environment, children’s diets, and obesity findings from the third school nutrition dietary assessment study,Journal of the American Dietetic Association109(2): Supplement

Addolorato, G., et al. 2004. Regional cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with celiac disease.The American Journal of Medicine116(5):312-317.

Bello, N., et al. 2009. High-fat, high-sugar foods alter brain receptors. Presented at 2009 annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior.

Benoit, S., et al. Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC-? subcellular localization in rodents.The Journal of Clinical Investigation119(9):2577.

Bolling, S. 2009. Blueberries make their mark on cardiovascular and diabetes risks, U-M animal study finds. Presented at Experimental Biology convention.

California Department of Health Services. Obesity costs California $21.7 billion annually. April 5, 2005.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1976–1980 and 2003–2006).

Clark, M.A., Fox, M.K. 2009. Nutritional quality of the diets of U.S. public school children and the role of the school meal programs.Journal of the American Dietetic Association109(2):S44-S56.

Cook, N.R., Obarzanek, E., Cutler, J.A., Buring, J.E., Rexrode, K.M., Kumanyika, S.K., Appel, L.J., Whelton, P.K. 2009. Joint effects of sodium and potassium intake on subsequent cardiovascular disease: the Trials of Hypertension Prevention follow-up study.Archives of Internal Medicine169(1):32-40.

Crepinsek, M.K., Gordon, A.R., McKinney, P.M., Condon,E.M., Wilson, A. 2009.

Meals offered and served in U.S. public schools: do they meet nutrient standards?

Journal of the American Dietetic Association109(2):S31-S43.

Fox, M.K., Gordon, A., Nogales, R., Wilson, A. 2009. Availability and consumption of competitive foods in U.S. public schools.Journal of the American Dietetic Association109(2):S57-S66.

Gaby, A. 1998. The role of hidden food allergy/intolerance in chronic disease.Alternative Medicine Review3(2):90-100.

Gordon, A.R., Cohen, R., Crepinsek, M.K., Fox, M.K., Hall, J., Zeidman, E. 2009.

The third school nutrition dietary assessment study: background and study design.

Journal of the American Dietetic Association109(2):S20-S30.

He, F.J. and Macregor, G.A. 2001. Beneficial effects of potassium.BMJ323(7311): 497–501.

Hyman, M.The UltraMind Solution: Fix Your Broken Brain by Healing Your Body First. New York: Scribner, 2008.

Johnson, R.K., et al on behalf of the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism and the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. 2009. Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association.Circulation120:1011-1020.

Kessler, D.The End of Overeating: Taking Control of the Insatiable American Appetite.New York: Rodale Press, 2009.

Leone, N. et al. 2009. Lung function impairment and metabolic syndrome: the critical role of abdominal obesity.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine179: 509-516

Morley, J. and Silver, A. 1995. Nutritional issues in nursing home care.Annals of Internal Medicine123(11):850-859.

Murray, A.J., Knight, N.S., Cochlin, L.E., McAleese, S., Deacon, R.M.J., Rawlins, J.N.P., Clarke, K. 2009. Deterioration of physical performance and cognitive function in rats with short-term high-fat feeding.FASEB Journaldoi:10.1096/fj.09-139691.

Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D., McDowell, M.A., Flegal, K.M. 2007. Obesity among adults in the United States – no change since 2003—2004. NCHS data brief no 1. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D., Flegal, K.M. 2008. High body mass index for age among us children and adolescents, 2003—2006.JAMA299(20):2401—2405.

Rapp, D.Is This Your Child? Discovering and Treating Unrecognized Allergies in Children and Adults. New York: Harper, 1991.

Sacks, F., et al. 2009. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.The New England Journal of Medicine360(9):859-873.

Shaver, H. 1980. Nutritional status of nursing home patients,Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition4(4):367-370.

Sica, D.A., Struthers, A.D., Cushman, W.C., Wood, M., Banas Jr., J.S., Epstein, M. 2002. Importance of Potassium in Cardiovascular Disease.Medscape Today7/16/2002.

Sohn, E., 2009. Study: Sodium-to-potassium ratio a key to heart health. Consuming twice as much potassium as sodium might halve your risk of dying from cardiovascular disease.Los Angeles Times2/23/2009.

Story, M. 2009. The third school nutrition dietary assessment study: findings and policy implications for improving the health of U.S. children.Journal of the American Dietetic Association109(2):S7-S13.

University of Copenhagen. 2008. Dark chocolate is more filling than milk. December 23.

Whelton, P.K., He, J., Cutler, J.A., Brancati, F.L., Appel, L.J., Follmann, D., Klag, M.J. 1997. Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.JAMA277(20):1624-32.


Chapter 5 The Exercise Solution

———. 2005. Annual smoking attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses – United States, 1997-2001.JAMA, MMWR54:625-628.

Alaei, H., Moloudi, R., Sarkaki, A.R. 2008. Effects of treadmill running on mid-term memory and swim speed in the rat with Morris water maze test.Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies12(1):72-5.

Aldana, S.G., Merrill, R.M., Price, K., Hardy, A., Hager, R. 2005. Financial impact of a comprehensive multisite workplace health promotion program.Preventive Medicine40(2):131-7.

Amen, D.G.Change Your Brain, Change Your Life. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2000.

Amen, D.G.Healing ADD. New York: Berkley Books, 2001.

Amen, D.G.Making a Good Brain Great. New York: Harmony Books, 2005.

Amen, D.G.Magnificent Mind at Any Age. New York: Harmony Books, 2008.

Boecker, H., et al. 2008. The runner’s high: Opioidergic mechanisms in the human brain.Cerebral Cortex18(11):2523-31.

Brown, R.A., et al. 2009. Aerobic exercise for alcohol recovery: Rationale, program description, and preliminary findings.Behavior Modification33(2):220-49.

Buchman, A.S., Wilson, R.S., Bennett, D.A. 2008. Total daily activity is associated with cognition in older persons.American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry16(8):697-701.

Burns, J.M., Cronk, B.B., Anderson, H.S., Donnelly, J.E., Thomas, G.P., Harsha, A., Brooks, W.M., Swerdlow, R.H. Cardiorespiratory fitness and brain atrophy in early Alzheimer disease.Neurology. 71(3):210-6.

California Department of Education. 2005. A study of the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement in California using 2004 test results.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics.Health, United States 2004.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006 National youth tobacco survey and key prevalence indicators.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Cigarette use among high school students—United States 1991–2007.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report[serial online] 57(25):686–688.

Chapman, L.S. 2005. Meta-evaluation of worksite health promotion economic return studies: 2005 update.American Journal of Health Promotion19(6):1-11.

Colliver, V. 2007. Workplace wellness: Keeping employees healthy: Companies offer exercise and nutrition programs for workers, but insurers have been slow to reward them with reduced premiums.San Francisco ChronicleJune 15.

Halpern, M.T., Shikiar, R., Rentz, A.M., Khan, Z.M. 2001. Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity.Tobacco Control10(3): 233-238.

Hosseini, M., Alaei, H.A., Naderi, A., Sharifi, M.R., Zahed, R. 2009. Treadmill exercise reduces self-administration of morphine in male rats.Pathophysiology16(1):3-7.

Ince, M.L. 2008. Use of a social cognitive theory-based physical-activity intervention on health-promoting behaviors of university students.Perceptual and Motor Skills107(3):833-6.

Jacini, W.F., Cannonieri, G.C., Fernandes, P.T., Bonilha, L., Cendes, F., Li, L.M. 2009. Can exercise shape your brain? Cortical differences associated with judo practice.Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. Jan 13. [Epub ahead of print].

Keylock, K.T., Vieira, V.J., Wallig, M.A., DiPietro, L.A., Schrementi, M., Woods, J.A. 2008. Exercise accelerates cutaneous wound healing and decreases wound inflammation in aged mice.American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology294(1):R179-84.

Knapen, J., Sommerijns, E., Vancampfort, D., Sienaert, P., Pieters, G., Haake, P., Probst, M., Peuskens, J. 2008. State anxiety and subjective well-being responses to acute bouts of aerobic exercise in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders.British Journal of Sports Medicine, Nov 19. [Epub ahead of print].

Laurin, D., Verreault, R., Lindsay, J., MacPherson, K., Rockwood, K. 2001. Physical activity and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in elderly persons.Archives of Neurology58(3):498-504.

Lautenschlager, N.T., Cox, K.L., Flicker, L., Foster, J.K., van Bockxmeer, F.M., Xiao, J., Greenop, K.R., Almeida, O.P. Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial.Journal of the American Medical Association300(9):1027-37.

Liu-Ambrose, T., Donaldson, M.G. 2009. Exercise and cognition in older adults: Is there a role for resistance training programmes?British Journal of Sports Medicine43(1):25-7.

Lo Bue-Estes, C., Willer, B., Burton, H., Leddy, J.J., Wilding, G.E., Horvath, P.J. 2008. Short-term exercise to exhaustion and its effects on cognitive function in young women.Perceptual and Motor Skills107(3):933-45.

Ma, Q. 2008. Beneficial effects of moderate voluntary physical exercise and its biological mechanisms on brain health.Neuroscience Bulletin24(4):265-70.

Matson Koffman, D.M., Goetzel, R.Z., Anwuri, V.V., Shore, K.K., Orenstein, D., LaPier, T. 2005. Heart healthy and stroke free: Successful business strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease.American Journal of Preventive Medicine29(5)Supplement 1:113-121.

Nelson, M. Gordon-Larsen, P. 2006. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns are associated with selected adolescent health risk behaviors.Pediatrics117(4):1281-1290.

Olfson, M., Marcus, S.C. 2009. National patterns in antidepressant medication treatment.Archives of General Psychiatry66(8):848-56.

Ratey, J.Spark. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2008.

Rockwood, K. Middleton, L. 2007. Physical activity and the maintenance of cognitive function.Alzheimer’s & Dementia3(2)Supplement:S38-S44.

Schneider, M.L., Graham, D.J. 2009. Personality, physical fitness, and affective response to exercise among adolescents.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise41(4):947-55.

Shin, M.K. 2009. Effects of an exercise program on frontal lobe cognitive function in elders.Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing39(1):107-15.

Slobogin, K. 2001. Why violence? The secret service’s findings on school shootings. March 6, 2001.

Stephen, I.D., Coetzee, V., Law Smith, M,, Perrett, D.I. 2009. Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation colour affect perceived human health.PLoS ONE4(4): e5083.

Ströhle, A., Graetz, B., Scheel, M., Wittmann, A., Feller, C., Heinz, A., Dimeo, F. 2009. The acute antipanic and anxiolytic activity of aerobic exercise in patients with panic disorder and healthy control subjects.Journal of Psychiatric Research43(12):1013-7.

Strong, W.B., et al. 2005. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth.Pediatrics146(6):732-737.

Stroth, S., Kubesch, S., Dieterle, K., Ruchsow, M., Heim, R., Kiefer, M. 2009. Physical fitness, but not acute exercise modulates event-related potential indices for executive control in healthy adolescents.Brain Research1269:114-24.

Taylor, A.H., Ussher, M.H., Faulkner, G. 2007. The acute effects of exercise on cigarette cravings, withdrawal symptoms, affect and smoking behaviour: A systematic review.Addiction102(4):534-43.

Tsivgoulis, G., et al. 2009. Association of higher diastolic blood pressure levels with cognitive impairment.Neurology73:589-595.

Ussher, M.H., Taylor, A., Faulkner, G. 2008. Exercise interventions for smoking cessation.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (online)Oct 8;(4):CD002295.

Weih, M., Abu-Omar, K., Esselmann, H., Gelbrich, G., Lewczuk, P., Rütten, A., Wiltfang, J., Kornhuber, J. 2009. Physical activity and prevention of Alzheimer’s dementia: 77(3):146-51.

Williamson, J.D., et al. 2009. Changes in cognitive function in a randomized trial of physical activity: results of the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot study. Journals of Gerontology: Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences64(6):688-94.

Chapter 6 The Skin Solution

Arcka, P., Pausb, R. 2006. From the brain-skin connection: the neuroendocrine-immune misalliance of stress and itch.Neuroimmunomodulation13:347-356 .

Beitner, H. 2003. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study on the clinical efficacy of a cream containing 5% alpha-lipoic acid related to photoageing of facial skin.British Journal of Dermatology149(4):841-9.

Girotti, A.W. 1998. Lipid hydroperoxide generation, turnover, and effector action in biological systems.Journal of Lipid Research39:1529–1542.

Grossman R. 2005. The role of dimethylaminoethanol in cosmetic dermatology.American Journal of Clinical Dermatology6(1):39-47.

He, Q.C., Tavakkol, A., Wietecha, K., Begum-Gafur, R., Ansari, S.A., Polefka, T. 2006. Effects of environmentally realistic levels of ozone on stratum corneum function.International Journal of Cosmetic Science28(5):349-57.

Joachim, R.A. 2007. Neuronal plasticity of the “brain-skin connection:” stress-triggered up-regulation of neuropeptides in dorsal root ganglia and skin via nerve growth factor-dependent pathways.Journal of Molecular Medicine85(12): 1369-78.

Lauritzen, C., Studd, J.Current Management of the Menopause. Taylor & Francis Group, 2005.

Model, D. 1985. Smoker’s face: an underrated clinical sign?British Medical Journal(Clinical Researc Ed). 291(6511):1760-2.

Neckelmann, D., Mykletun, A., Dahl, A., 2007. Chronic insomnia as a risk factor for developing anxiety and depression.Sleep30(7):873-880.

Nixon, R. Your skin produces marijuana-like substance,LiveScience, July 11, 2008.

Pageon, H., Técher, M.P., Asselineau, D. 2008. Reconstructed skin modified by glycation of the dermal equivalent as a model for skin aging and its potential use to evaluate anti-glycation molecules.Experimental Gerontology43(6):584-8.

Paus, R., Theoharides, T., Arck, P.C. 2006. Neuroimmunoendocrine circuitry of the “brain-skin connection.”Trends in ImmunologyVol. 27 No. 1.

Persson, M.L., Johansson, J., Vumma, R., Raita, J., Bjerkenstedt, L., Wiesel, F.A., Venizelos, N. 2009. Aberrant amino acid transport in fibroblasts from patients with bipolar disorder.Neuroscience Letters457(1):49-52.

Rabat, M. Rejuvenate your skin while you sleep.Life Extension MagazineAugust, 2003.

Repinski, K. Face facts: Too much sugar can cause wrinkles.Prevention10/21/2007.

Sofie, A.E. Hertog, D., Wensveen, C.A.H., Bastiaens, M.T., Kielich, C.J., Berkhout, M.J.P., Westendorp, R.G.J., Vermeer, B.J., Bouwes Bavinck, J.N. 2001. Relation between smoking and skin cancer.Journal of Clinical Oncology19(1):231-238.

Thom, E. 2005. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the clinical efficacy of oral treatment with DermaVite on ageing symptoms of the skin.Journal of International Medical Research33(3):267-272.

Van der Leun, J.C., Piacentini R.D., de Gruijl, F.R. 2008. Climate change and human skin cancer.Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences7(6):730-3.

Wang, Y.J., Thomas, P., Zhong, J.H., Bi, F.F., Kosaraju, S., Pollard, A., Fenech, M., Zhou, X.F. 2009. Consumption of grape seed extract prevents amyloid-beta deposition and attenuates inflammation in brain of an Alzheimer’s disease mouse.Neurotoxicity Research15(1):3-14.

Ye, X., Tong, Z., Dang, Y., Tu, Q., Weng, Y., Liu, J., Zhang, Z. 2009. Effects of blood glucose fluctuation on skin biophysical properties, structure and antioxidant status in an animal model.Clinical and Experimental DermatologyJuly 6. [Epub ahead of print].

Yosipovitch, G., Ishiuji, Y., Patel, T.S., Hicks, M.I., Oshiro, Y., Kraft, R.A., Winnicki, E., Coghill, R.C. 2008. The brain processing of scratching.Journal of Investigative DermatologyJul;128(7):1806-11.


Chapter 7 The Hormone Solution

—, Blood-sugar spikes send testosterone levels down.HealthDay NewsJune 13, 2009.
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Alumad, A.M., Hopkins, M.T., Weston, P.J., Fraser, W.D., Vora, J.P. 2002. Effects of GH replacement on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure an its circadian rhythm in adult GH deficiency.ClinicalEndocrinology(Oxf)56(4):431-7.

Arnold, S., Beyer, C. 2009. Neuroprotection by estrogen in the brain: the mitochondrial compartment as presumed therapeutic target.Journal of NeurochemistryMay 29. [Epub ahead of print].

Baca-García, E., Díaz-Sastre, C., de Leon, J., Saiz-Ruiz, J. 2000. The relationship between menstrual cycle phases and suicide attempts.Psychosomatic Medicine62:50-60.

Barron, A.M., Fuller, S.J., Verdile, G., Martins, R.N. 2006. Reproductive hormones modulate oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s disease.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling8(11-12):2047-59.

Bergemann, N., Parzer, P., Nagl, I., Salbach, B., Mundt, Ch., Resch, F. 2002. Acute psychiatric admission and menstrual cycle phase in women with schizophrenia.Journal Archives of Women’s Mental Health5(3):119-126.

Bialek, M., Zaremba, P., Borowicz, K.K., Czuczwar, S.J. 2004. Neuroprotective role of testosterone in the nervous system.Polish Journal of Pharmacology56(5):509-18.

Bosevski, M., Tosev, S., Sadikario, S. 2008. Premature atherosclerosis in patients with growth hormone deficiency and diabetes mellitus.BratislLekListy109(6):279-80.

Braverman, E.R., Chen, T., Prihoda, T., Sonntag, W., Meshkin, B., Downs, W., Mengucci, J., Blum, S., Notaro, A., Arcuri, V., Varshavskiy, M., Blum, K. 2007. Plasma growth hormones, p300 event-related potential and test of variables of attention (t.o.v.a) are important neuroendocrinological predictors of early cognitive decline in clinical setting: evidence supported by structural equation modeling parameter estimates.Age29(2-3):55-67.

Bush, A.L., Allen, P.A., Kaut, K.P., Ogrocki, P.K. 2007. Influence of mild cognitive impairment on visual word recognition.Neuropsychoogy,Development, andCognition SectionBAging,Neuropsychology andCognition14(4):329-52.

Colao, A., Di Somma, C., Spiezia, S., Savastano, S., Rota, F., Savanelli, M.C., Lombardi, G. 2008. Growth hormone treatment on atherosclerosis: results of a 5-year open, prospective, controlled study in male patients with severe growth hormone deficiency.Journal ofClinicalEndocrinology &Metabolism93(9):3416-24.

Colao, A., Di Somma, C., Cascella, T., Pivonello, R., Vitale, G., Grasso, L.F., Lombardi, G., Savastano, S. 2008. Relationship between serum IGF1 levels, blood pressure, and glucose tolerance: an observational, exploratory study in 404 subjects.European Journal ofEndocrinology159(4):389-97.

Doncarlos, L.L., Azcoitia, I., Garcia-Segura, L.M. 2009. Neuroprotective actions of selective estrogen receptor modulators.PsychoneuroendocrinologyMay 15. [Epub ahead of print].

Elliott, S.S., Keim, N.L., Stern, J.S., Teff, K., Havel, P.J. 2002. Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition76(5):911-922.

Gao, Q., et al. 2007. Anorectic estrogen mimics leptin’s effect on the rewiring of melanocortin cells and Stat3 signaling in obese animals.Nature Medicine13(1):89-94.

Giovannini, S., Marzetti, E., Borst, S.E., Leeuwenburgh, C. 2008. Modulation of GH/IGF-1 axis: Potential strategies to counteract sarcopenia in older adults.Mechanisms of Ageing and Development129(10):593-601.

Gomez, J.M. 2008. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I as an endocrine axis in Alzheimer’s disease.Endocrine,Metabolic &ImmuneDisorders —DrugTargets8(2):143-51.

Golgeli, A., Tanriverdi, F., Suer, C., Gokce, C., Ozesmi, C., Bayram, F., Kelestimur, F. 2004. Utility of P300 auditory event related potential latency in detecting cognitive dysfunction in growth hormone (GH) deficient patients with Sheehan’s syndrome and effects of GH replacement therapy.EuropeanJournal ofEndocrinology150(2):153-9.

Horan, M., Pendleton, N., Jackson, A., Lunn, D., Rabitt, P., Mogapi, O., Scott, M., Thacker, N., Lowe, C. 2007. Effects of global atrophy, white matter lesions, and cerebral blood flow on age-related changes in speed, memory, intelligence, vocabulary, and frontal function.Neuropsychology21(6):684-95.

Hunt, K.J., et al. 2006. A potential inverse association between insulin-like growth factor I and hypertension in a cross-sectional study.AnnalsofEpidemiology16(7):563-71

Kearney, T. et al. 2003. Effects of short- and long-term growth hormone replacement on lipoprotein composition and on very-low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B100 kinetics in growth hormone-deficient hypopituitary subjects.Metabolism52(1):50-9.

Ling, F.A., Hui, D.Z., Ji, S.M. 2007. Protective effect of recombinant human somatotropin on amyloid beta peptide induced learning and memory deficits in mice.GrowthHormone &IGFResearch17(4):336-41.

Loucks, T.L., Berga, S.L. 2009. Does postmenopausal estrogen use confer neuroprotection?Seminars In Reproductive Medicine27(3):260-74.

Nguyen, T.V., Yao, M., Pike, C.J. 2005. Androgens activate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling: role in neuroprotection.Journal of Neurochemistry94(6):1639-51.

Rodeheffer, R.J., Gerstenblith, G., Becker, L.C., Fleg, J.L., Weisfeldt, M.L., Lakatta, E.G. 1984. Exercise cardiac output is maintained with advancing age in healthy human subjects: cardiac dilatation and increased stroke volume compensate for a diminished heart rate.Circulation69(2):203-13.

Rolland, Y., et al. 2008. Frailty, osteoporosis and hip fracture: causes, consequences and therapeutic perspectives.Journal ofNutrition, Health and Aging12(5):335-46.

Rosario, E.R., Chang, L., Head, E.H., Stanczyk, F.Z., Pike, C.J. 2009. Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer’s disease.Neurobiology of AgingMay 8. [Epub ahead of print].

Rudman, D., Feller, A.G., Nagraj, H.S., Gergans, G.A., Lalitha, P.Y., Goldberg, A.F., Schlenker, R.A., Cohn, L., Rudman, I.W., Mattson, D.E. 1990. Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old.New England Journal of Medicine323(1):1-6.

Rasmussen, M.H., Wildschiodtz, G., Juul, A., Hilsted, J. 2008. Polysomnographic sleep, growth hormone insulin-like growth factor-I axis, leptin, and weight loss.Obesity16:1516-1521.

Schaffer, A., et al. 2007. Insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.CancerEpidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention16(4):716-22.

Tenover, J.S. 2003. Declining testicular function in aging men.International Journal of Impotence Research15(Suppl 4):S3–S8.

Villareal, D.T., Holloszy, J.O. 2004. Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men.JAMA292(18):2243-2248.

Chapter 8 The Heart Solution

Akehi, Y., Yoshimatsu, H., Kurokawa, M., Sakata, T., Eto, H., Ito, S., Ono, J. 2001. VLCD-induced weight loss improves heart rate variability in moderately obese japanese.Experimental Biology and Medicine226:440-445.

American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sleep restriction reduces heart rate variability. June 13, 2007.

Buby, C., Elfner, L.F., May, J.G. Jr. 1990. Relaxation pretraining, pulse wave velocity and thermal biofeedback in the treatment of essential hypertension.International Journal of Psychophysiology9(3):225-30.

Carney, R.M., et al. 2005. Low heart rate variability and the effect of depression on post-myocardial infarction mortality.Archives of Internal Medicine165(13):1486-91.

Duan, X., Tashiro, M., Wu, D., Yambe, T., Wang, Q., Sasaki, T., Kumagai, K., Luo, Y., Nitta, S., Itoh, M. 2007. Autonomic nervous function and localization of cerebral activity during lavender immersion.Technology and Health Care15(2):69-78.

Grossman, P. 1992. Respiratory and cardiac rhythms as windows to central and autonomic biobehavioral regulation: Selection of window frames, keeping the panes clean and viewing neural topography.Biological Psychology34:131-161.

Hahn, Y.B., Ro, Y.J., Song, H.H., Kim, N.C., Kim, H.S., Yoo, Y.S. 1993. The effect of thermal biofeedback and progressive muscle relaxation training in reducing blood pressure of patients with essential hypertension.Image — The Journal of Nursing Scholarship25(3):204-7.

Haines, A.P., Imeson, J.D., Meade, T.W. 1987. Phobic anxiety and ischaemic heart disease.British Medical Journal295:297-299.

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Kawachi, I., Sparrow, D., Vokonas, P.S., Weiss, S.T. 1994. Symptoms of anxiety and risk of coronaryheart disease: The Normative Aging Study.Circulation90:2225-2229.

Kawachi, I., Sparrow, D., Vokonas, P.S., Weiss, S.T. 1995. Decreased heart rate variability in men with phobic anxiety.American Journal of Cardiology75:882-885.

Kristal-Boneh, E., Raifel, M., Froom, P., Ribak, J. 1995. Heart rate variability in health and disease.Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health21:85-95.

Lavi, T., Karasik, A., Koren-Morag, N., Kanety, H., Feinberg, M., Shecther, M. 2009. The acute effect of various glycemic index dietary carbohydrates on endothelial function in nondiabetic overweight and obese subjects.Journal of the American College of Cardiology53:2283-2287

McCraty, R., Atkinson, M., Tiller, W., Rein, G., Watkins, A.D. 1995. The effects of emotions on short-term power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability.American Journal of Cardiology76(14):1089-1093.

Mendoza, I., et al. Sudden death: the anniversary effect. American College of Cardiology Meeting 2008; Abstract 1029-100.

Miller, M., Mangano, C., Park, Y., Goel, R., Plotnick, G.D., Vogel, R.A. 2006. Impact of cinematic viewing on endothelial function.Heart92(2):261-2.

Mittleman, M.A., Maclure, M., Sherwood, J.B., Mulry, R.P., Tofler, G.H., Jacobs, S.C., Friedman, R., Benson, H., Muller, J.E. 1995. Triggering of acute myocardial infarction onset by episodes of anger.Circulation92:1720-1725.

Neki, N.S., Singh, R.B., Rastogi, S.S. 2004. How brain influences neuro-cardiovascular dysfunction.Journal of Assocication of Physicians of India. 52:223-30.

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Offerhaus, R.E. 1980. Heart rate variability in psychiatry. In: RJ Kitney, Rompelman O (eds).The Study of Heart Rate Variability.Oxford: Oxford University Press, 225-238.

Sloan, R.P., Shapiro, P.A., Bigger, T. Jr., Bagiella, E., Steinman, R.C., Gorman, J.M. 1994. Cardiac autonomic control and hostility in healthy subjects.American Journal of Cardiology74:298-300.

Souza, G.G., Mendonça-de-Souza A.C., Barros, E.M., Coutinho, E.F., Oliveira, L., Mendlowicz, M.V., Figueira, I., Volchan, E. 2007. Resilience and vagal tone predict cardiac recovery from acute social stress.Stress10(4):368-74.

Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. 1996. Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use.Circulation93:1043-65.

Wain, H.J., Amen, D.G., Oetgen, W.J. 1983. Cardiac arrhythmias and hypnotic intervention: advantages, disadvantages, precautions, and theoretical considerations.American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis26(1):1-4.

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Yeragani, V.K., Pohl, R., Berger, R., Balon, R., Ramesh, C., Glitz, D., Srinivasan, K., Weinberg, P. 1993. Decreased heart rate variability in panic disorder patients: a study of power-spectral analysis of heart rate.Psychiatry Research46:89-103.

Chapter 9 The Focus and Energy Solution


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Jang et al. 2008. Red ginseng for treating erectile dysfunction: a systematic review.British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology4:444-50.

Lee et al. 2008. Interactioin between warfarin and Panax ginseng in ischemic stroke patients.Journal of Alternative and ComplementaryMedicine6:715-21.

Lee et al. 2008. Panax ginseng enhances cognitive performance in Alzheimer’s disease.Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders3:222-6.

Liang et al. 2005. Panax notoginseng supplementation enhances physical performance during endurance exercise.Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research1:108-14.

Reay et al. 2005. Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity.Journal of Psychopharmacology4:357-65.

Sotaniemi et al. 1995. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.Diabetes Care10:1373-5.

Vuksan et al. 2008 Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves glucose and insulin regulation in well-controlled, type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety.Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases1:46-56.

Wesnes et al. 2000. The memory enhancing effects of a ginkgo biloba/panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers.Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 4:353-61.

Xiang et al. 2008. A comparison of the ancient use of ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological experiments and clinical trials.Phytotherapy Research7:851-8.

Yin et al. 2008. Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of metabolic syndrome.Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders — Drug Targets2:99-111.

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Chapter 10 The Sleep Solution

Abramowitz, E.G., Barak, Y., Ben-Avi, I., Knobler, H.Y. 2008. Hypnotherapy in the treatment of chronic combat-related PTSD patients suffering from insomnia: a randomized, zolpidem-controlled clinical trial.  International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis56(3):270-80.

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Benca, RM. 2001. Consequences of insomnia and its therapies.Journal of Clinical Psychiatry62:(suppl 10):27-32.

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Buysse, D., et al. 2008. Prevalence, course, and comorbidity of insomnia and depression in young adults.Sleep31(4):473-480.

Cappuccio, F. Obesity in children and adults: sleep deprivation doubles risk. Presented at the 2006 International AC21 Research Festival.

Carpenter, S. 2001. Sleep deprivation may be undermining teen health.Monitor on PsychologyVol. 32 No. 9.

Chapman, D.P. Sleeping habits of parents. Presented at American Psychiatric Association’s 2007 annual meeting.

Danner, F., Phillips, B. 2008. Adolescent sleep, school start times, and teen motor vehicle crashes.Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine4(6):533-5.

Durmer, J.S., Dinges, D.F. 2005. Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation.Seminars in Neurology25:117-129.

Forquer, L.M., Camden, A.E., Gabriau, K.M., Johnson, C.M. 2008. Sleep patterns of college students at a public university.Journal of American College Health56(5):563-5.

Giannotti, F. 2005. Sleeping habits in italian children and adolescents.Sleep and Biological Rhythms3(1):15 – 21.

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Lamberg, L. 2005. Sleep may be athletes’ best performance booster.Psychiatric News40(16):21.

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Neckelmann, D., Mykletun, A., Dahl, A. 2007. Chronic insomnia as a risk factor for developing anxiety and depression.Sleep30(7):873-880.

Nedeltcheva, A., et al. 2009. Sleep curtailment is accompanied by increased intake of calories from snacks.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition89(1):126-133.

Nedeltcheva A, et al. 2009. Exposure to recurrent sleep restriction in the setting of high caloric intake and physical inactivity results in increased insulin resistance and reduced glucose tolerance.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolismpublished online June 30. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2009-0483.

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Patel, S., Malhotra, A., White, David, Gottlieb, D., Hu, F. 2006. Association between reduced sleep and weight gain in women.American Journal of Epidemiology.164(10):947-954.

Pigeon, W. et al. 2008. Is insomnia a perpetuating factor for late-life depression in the impact cohort?Sleep31(4):481-488.

Postuma, R., et al. 2009. Quantifying the risk of neurodegenerative disease in idiopathic rem sleep behavior disorder.Neurology72(15):1296-300.

Rabat, M. Rejuvenate your skin while you sleep,Life Extension MagazineAugust 2003.

Roane, B., Taylor, D. 2008. Adolescent insomnia as a risk factor for early adult depression and substance abuse.Sleep31(10):1351-1356.

Shinomiya, K., Inoue, T., Utsu, Y., Tokunaga, S., Masuoka, T., Ohmori, A., Kamei, C. 2005. Effects of kava-kava extract on the sleep-wake cycle in sleep-disturbed rats.Psychopharmacology(Berl) 180(3):564-9.

Spiegel, K., Tasali, E., Leproult, R., Van Cauter, E. 2009. Effects of poor and short sleep on glucose metabolism and obesity risk.Nature Reviews Endocrinology5(5):253-61.

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Taber, K., Hurley, R. 2006. Functional neuroanatomy of sleep and sleep deprivation.Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences18:1-5.

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Chapter 11 The Stress Solution

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Khalsa, D.S., Amen, D.G., Hanks, C., Newberg,A.Kirtan kriya meditation and high resolution brain SPECT imaging. Accepted byNuclear Medicine Communications,June 2010.

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Lane, J.D. 1994. Neuroendocrine responses to caffeine in the work environment.Psychosomatic Medicine56(3):267-70.

Lane, J.D., Pieper, C.F., Phillips-Bute, B.G., Bryant, J.E., Kuhn, C.M. 2002. Caffeine affects cardiovascular and neuroendocrine activation at work and home.Psychosomatic Medicine64(4):595-603.

Lohman, B., et al. 2009. Adolescent overweight and obesity: links to food insecurity and individual, maternal, and family stressors.Journal of Adolescent Health45(3):230-237.

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Murphy, M., Donovan, S.The Physical and Psychological Effects of Meditation: A Review of Contemporary ResearchInstitute of Noetic Sciences.

Pagnoni, G., Cekic, M. 2007. Age effects on gray matter volume and attentional performance in zen meditation.Neurobiological Aging(10):1623-7.

Parks, C.G., Miller, D.B., McCanlies, E.C., Cawthon ,R.M., Andrew, M.E., DeRoo, L.A., Sandler, D.P. 2009. Telomere length, current perceived stress, and urinary stress hormones in women.Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention18(2): 551-560.

Pruessner, J.C., Dedovic, K., Pruessner, M., Lord, C., Buss, C., Collins, L., Dagher, A., Lupien, S.J. 2009. Stress regulation in the central nervous system: Evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging studies in human populations.PsychoneuroendocrinologyApril 9. [Epub ahead of print].

Qin, S., Hermans, E.J., van Marle, H.J., Luo, J., Fernández, G. 2009. Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.Biological Psychiatry66(1):25-32.

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Seligman, M.,Authentic Happiness, New York: Free Press, 2002.

Tang, Y.Y., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Feng, S., Lu, Q., Yu, Q., Sui, D., Rothbart, M.K., Fan, M., Posner, M.I. 2007. Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America104(43):17152-6.

Tanielian, T., Jaycox, L.H. (eds.).Invisible Wounds of War: Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, Their Consequences, and Services to Assist Recovery. Santa Monica/Arlington/ Pittsburgh: RAND Corporation, 2008.

Toda, M., Morimoto, K. 2008. Effect of lavender aroma on salivary endocrinological stress markers.Archives of Oral Biology53(10):964-8.

Tolle, E.,The Power of Now, Novato: Namaste Publishing and New World Library, 1999.

Travis, F., Haaga, D.A., Hagelin, J., Tanner, M., Nidich, S., Gaylord-King, C., Grosswald, S., Rainforth, M., Schneider, R.H. 2009. Effects of transcendental meditation practice on brain functioning and stress reactivity in college students.International Journal of Psychophysiology71(2):170-6.

Uno, H., Eisele, S., Sakai, A., Shelton, S., Baker, E., DeJesus, O., Holden, J. 1994. Neurotoxicity of glucocorticoids in the primate brain.Hormones and Behavior28(4):336-48.

Wand, G.S., Dobs, A.S. 1991. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in actively drinking alcoholics.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism72(6):1290-1295.

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Woods, N.F., Mitchell, E.S., Smith-Dijulio, K. 2009. Cortisol levels during the menopausal transition and early postmenopause: observations from the Seattle midlife women’s health study.Menopause16(4):708-18.

Zellner, D.A., Loaiza, S., Gonzalez, Z., Pita, J., Morales, J., Pecora, D., Wolf, A. 2006. Food selection changes under stress.Physiology & Behavior87(4):789-793.

Chapter 13 The ANT Solution

Amen, D.G.Change Your Brain, Change Your Life. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2000.

Amen, D.G.Making a Good Brain Great. New York: Harmony Books, 2005.

Amen, D.G. and J. Payne.Making a Good Brain GreatHigh School Course, 2005.

Amen, D.G.Magnificent Mind at Any Age. New York: Harmony Books, 2008.

Arias, E. 2007. United States Life Tables, 2004.National Vital Statistics ReportVol. 56, No. 9.

Beauregard, M. 2007. Mind does really matter: evidence from neuroimaging studies of emotional self-regulation, psychotherapy, and placebo effect.Progress in Neurobiology81(4):218-36.

Beck, Judith.The Beck Diet Solution. Birmingham: Oxmoor House, 2007.

Chuang, S.C. 2007. Sadder but wiser or happier and smarter? A demonstration of judgment and decision making.Journal of Psychology141(1):63-76.

George, M.S., Ketter, T.A., Parekh, P.I., et al. 1995. Brain activity during transient sadness and happiness in healthy women.American Journal of Pshyciatry152(3):341-351.

Katie Byron.Byron Katie on Health, Sickness, and Death. Los Angeles: Byron Katie International Inc., 2006.

Katie, Byron.Loving What Is. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2002.

Katie, Byron.The Perfect Body. Los Angeles: Byron Katie International, 2004

Levy, B.R., et al. 2002. Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging.Journal of

Personality and Social Psychology83(2):261-70.

Ostir, G., Ottenbacher, K.J., Markides, K.S. Onset of frailty in older adults and the protective role of positive affect.Psychology and Aging19(3):402-408.

Zadra, A., Desjardins, S., Marcotte, E. 2006. Evolutionary function of dreams: a test of the threat simulation theory in recurrent dreams.Consciousness and Cognition15(2):450-63.

Chapter 14 The Passion Solution

Amen, D.G. The Brain In Love. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2007.

Amen, D.G. and T.J. Bartel. Create More Passion Tonight. Newport Beach: MindWorks Press, 2009.

Chapter 15 The Brain Health Solution

Olfson, M., Marcus, S.C. 2009. National patterns in antidepressant medication treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry 66(8):848-56.

Satin, J.R. Satin, Linden, W., Phillips, M.J. 2009. Depression as a predictor of disease progression and mortality in cancer patients: a meta-analysis. Cancer DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24561.

Appendix C The Supplement Solution


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Baker GB, Bornstein RA, Rouget AC, Ashton SE, van Muyden JC, Coutts RT. Phenylethylaminergic mechanisms in attention-deficit disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1991 Jan 1;29(1):15-22.

Beckmann H, Athen D, Olteanu M, Zimmer R. DL-phenylalanine versus imipramine: a double-blind controlled study. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr. 1979 Jul 4;227(1):49-58.

Beckmann H, Strauss MA, Ludolph E. Dl-phenylalanine in depressed patients: an open study. J Neural Transm. 1977;41(2-3):123-34.

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Wood DR, Reimherr FW, Wender PH. Treatment of attention deficit disorder with DL-phenylalanine. Psychiatry Res. 1985 Sep;16(1):21-6


Abdou AM, Higashiguchi S, Horie K, Kim M, Hatta H, Yokogoshi H. Relaxation and immunity enhancement effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration in humans. Biofactors. 2006;26(3):201-8.

Cocito L, Bianchetti A, Bossi L, et al. GABA 30. and phosphatidylserine in human photosensitivity: a pilot study. Epilepsy Research 1994;17:49-53.

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Gottesmann C. GABA mechanisms and sleep. Neuroscience 2002;111:231-239.

Green ML, Green RG, Santoro W. Daily relaxation modifies serum and salivary immunoglobulins and psychophysiologic symptom severity. Biofeedback Self Regul 1988;13:187-199.

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Nemeroff CB. The role of GABA in the pathophysiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Psychopharmacol Bull 2003;37:133-146.

Streeter CC, Jensen JE, Perlmutter RM, et al. Yoga asana sessions increase brain GABA levels: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 2007;13:419-426.

Treiman DM. GABAergic mechanisms in epilepsy. Epilepsia 2001;42:8-12.

Ginkgo biloba

Burns, N., Bryan, J, and Nettelbeck, T. Ginkgo biloba: no robust effect on cognitive abilities or mood in healthy young or older adults. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2006 Jan; 21(1): 27-37.

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Hartley, D., et al. Effects on cognition and mood in postmenopausal women of 1-week treatment with Ginkgo biloba. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jun; 75(3): 711-20.

Kennedy, D., et al. Modulation of cognitive performance following single doses of 120 mg Ginkgo biloba extract administered to healthy young volunteers. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007 Dec; 22(8): 559-66.

Kennedy, D., et al. Acute cognitive effect of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007 Jun; 22(4):


Kennedy, D., Scholey, A., and Wesnes, K. Differential, dose dependent changes in cognitive perfomance following acute administration of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination to healthy young volunteers. Nutr Neurosci. 2001; 4(5):


Kennedy, D., Scholey, A., and Wesnes, K. The does-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000 Sep; 151(4): 416-23.

Le Bars PL. Response patterns of EGb 761 in Alzheimer’s disease: influence of neuropsychological profiles. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2003 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S50-5.

Le Bars PL. Magnitude of effect and special approach to Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in cognitive disorders. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2003 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S44-9. Review.

Le Bars PL, Velasco FM, Ferguson JM, Dessain EC, Kieser M, Hoerr R. Influence of the severity of cognitive impairment on the effect of the Gnkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychobiology. 2002;45(1):19-26.

Le Bars PL, Kastelan J. Efficacy and safety of a Ginkgo biloba extract. Public Health Nutr. 2000 Dec;3(4A):495-9. Review.

Le Bars PL, Kieser M, Itil KZ. A 26-week analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Jul-Aug;11(4):230-7.

Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, Itil TM, Freedman AM, Schatzberg AF. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group. JAMA. 1997 Oct 22-29;278(16):1327-32.

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Mix, J. and Crews, W. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2002 Aug; 17(6): 267-77.

Mix, J. and Crews, W. An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extraxt EGb 761 on the neuropsychological functioning of cognitively intact older adults. J Altern Complement Med. 2000 Jun; 6(3): 219-29.

Moulton, P., et al. The effects of Ginkgo biloba on memory in healthy male volunteers. Physiol Behav. 2001 Jul; 73(4): 659-65.

Napryeyenko, O., Borzenko, I., and GINDEM-NP Study Group. Ginkgo biloba special extract in dementia with neuropsychiatric features. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung. 2007; 57(1): 4-11.

Nathan, P., et al. Effects of a combined extract of Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in healthy humans. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004 Mar; 19(2): 91-6.

Novella, S. Ginkgo biloba and memory. Neuroscience. 2008 Mar.

Persson, J., et al. The memory-enhancing effects of Ginseng and Ginkgo biloba in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004 Apr; 172(4): 430-4.

Rai, G., Shovlin, C., and Wesnes, K. A double-blind, placebo controlled study of Ginkgo biloba extract (‘tanakan’) in elderly outpatients with mild to moderate memory impairment. Curr Med Res Opin. 1991; 12(6): 350-5.

Rigney, U., Kimber, S., and Hindmarch, I. The effects of acute doses of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract on memory and psychomotor performance in volunteers. Phytother Res. 1999 Aug; 13(5): 408-15.

Schneider, L., et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of two doses of Ginkgo biloba extract in dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2005 Dec: 2(5): 541-51.

Scripnikov, A., et al. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 on neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: findings from a randomized controlled trial. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2007; 157(13-14): 295-300.

Singh, B., et al. Dangshen (Codonopsis pilosula) and Bai guo (Ginkgo biloba) enhance learning and memory. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 Jul-Aug; 10(4): 52-6.

Solomon, P., et al. Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 Aug 21; 288(7): 835-40.

Stough, C., et al. Neuropsychological changes after 30-day Ginkgo biloba administration in healthy participants. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001 Jun; 4(2): 131-4.

van Dongen, M., et al. Ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associeated memory impairment: a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Epidemiol. 2003 Apr; 56(4): 367-76

van Dongen, M., et al. The efficacy of ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: new results of a randomized clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000 Oct; 48(10): 1183-94.

Wesnes, K., et al. The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Pax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000 Nov; 152(4): 353-61.

Woelk, H., et al. Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder with anxious mood: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Sep; 41(6): 472-80.

Huperzine A

Aisen, P. A Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Therapeutic Trial to Determine Whether Natural Huperzine A Improves Cognitive Function. Clinical Trials. 2007 Nov;

Zhang, Z., et al. Huperzine A as add-on therapy in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia: an open-labeled trial. Schizophr Res. 2007 May; 92(1-3): 273-5.

Zhang, Z., et al. Clincial efficacy and safety of huperzine Alpha in treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002 Jul 25: 82(14): 941-4.

Sun, Q., et al. Huperzine-A capsules enhance memory and learning performance in 34 pairs of matched adolescent students. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999 Jul; 20(7): 601-3.

Xu, S., et al. Huperzine-A in capsules and tablets for treating patients with Alzheimer disease. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999 Jun; 20(6): 486-90.

Ved, H., et al. Huperzine A, a potential therapeutic agent for dementia, reduces neuronal cell death caused by glutamate. NeuroReport. 1997 Mar; 8(4): 963-967.

Xu, S., et al. Efficacy of tablet huperzine-A on memory, cognition, and behavior in Alzheimer’s disease. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1995 Sep; 16(5): 391-5.

Zhang, R., et al. Drug evaluation of huperzine A in the treatment of senile memory disorders. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1991 May; 12 (3): 250-2.


Barak Y, Levine J, Glasman A, Elizur A, Belmaker RH. Inositol treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: a double blind, cross-over placebo controlled trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1996 May;20(4):729-35.

Benjamin J, Levine J, Fux M, Aviv A, Levy D, Belmaker RH. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of inositol treatment for panic disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Jul;152(7):1084-6.

Carey PD, Warwick J, Harvey BH, Stein DJ, Seedat S. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after treatment with inositol. Metab Brain Dis. 2004 Jun;19(1-2):125-34.

Chengappa KN, Levine J, Gershon S, Mallinger AG, Hardan A, Vagnucci A, Pollock B, Luther J, Buttenfield J, Verfaille S, Kupfer DJ. Inositol as an add-on treatment for bipolar depression. Bipolar Disord. 2000 Mar;2(1):47-55.

Fux M, Benjamin J, Belmaker RH. Inositol versus placebo augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a double-blind cross-over study. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 1999 Sep;2(3):193-195.

Fux M, Levine J, Aviv A, Belmaker RH. Inositol treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1996 Sep;153(9):1219-21.

Gelber D, Levine J, Belmaker RH. Effect of inositol on bulimia nervosa and binge eating. Int J Eat Disord. 2001 Apr;29(3):345-8.

Levine J, Mishori A, Susnosky M, Martin M, Belmaker RH. Combination of inositol and serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Feb 1;45(3):270-3.

Levine J. Controlled trials of inositol in psychiatry. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1997 May;7(2):147-55.

Levine J, Aviram A, Holan A, Ring A, Barak Y, Belmaker RH. Inositol treatment of autism. J Neural Transm. 1997;104(2-3):307-10.

Levine J, Barak Y, Gonzalves M, Szor H, Elizur A, Kofman O, Belmaker RH.

Double-blind, controlled trial of inositol treatment of depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 May;152(5):792-4.

Levine J, Goldberger I, Rapaport A, Schwartz M, Schield C, Elizur A, Belmaker RH, Shapiro J, Agam G. CSF inositol in schizophrenia and high-dose inositol treatment of schizophrenia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1994 Dec;4(4):487-90.

Nemets B, Talesnick B, Belmaker RH, Levine J. Myo-inositol has no beneficial effect on premenstrual dysphoric disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Jul;3(3):147-9.

Nemets B, Mishory A, Levine J, Belmaker RH. Inositol addition does not improve depression in SSRI treatment failures. J Neural Transm. 1999;106(7-8):795-8.

Nierenberg AA, Ostacher MJ, Calabrese JR, Ketter TA, Marangell LB, Miklowitz DJ, Miyahara S, Bauer MS, Thase ME, Wisniewski SR, Sachs GS. Treatment-resistant bipolar depression: a STEP-BD equipoise randomized effectiveness trial of antidepressant augmentation with lamotrigine, inositol, or risperidone. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Feb;163(2):210-6.

Palatnik A, Frolov K, Fux M, Benjamin J. Double-blind, controlled, crossover trial of inositol versus fluvoxamine for the treatment of panic disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001 Jun;21(3):335-9.

Seedat S, Stein DJ. Inositol augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open trial. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999 Nov;14(6):353-6.

Kava Kava

Attele AS, Xie JT, Yuan CS. Treatment of insomnia: an alternative approach. Altern Med Rev . 2000;5(3):249-259.

Basch E, Ulbricht C, Hammerness P, et al. Kava monograph. J Herbal Pharmacother . 2002;2(4):65-91.

Boerner RJ, Klement S. Attenuation of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side effects by Kava special extract WS 1490. Wien Med Wochenschr . 2004;154(21-22):508-10.

Boerner RJ, Sommer H, Berger W, et al. Kava-Kava extract LI 150 is as effective as Opipramol and Buspirone in Generalised Anxiety Disorder–an 8-week randomized, double-blind multi-centre clinical trial in 129 out-patients. Phytomedicine. 2003;10 Suppl 4:38-49.

Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions . 2nd ed. Sandy, Ore: Eclectic Medical; 1998:88-89.

Cagnacci A, Arangino S, Renzi A, et al. Kava-Kava administration reduces anxiety in perimenopausal women. Maturitas. 2003;44(2):103-109.

Connor KM, Payne V, Davidson JR. Kava in generalized anxiety disorder: three placebo-controlled trials. Int Clin Psychopharmacol . 2006;21(5):249-53.

Cropley M, Cave Z, Ellis J, et al. Effect of Kava and Valerian on human physiological and psychological responses to mental stress assessed under laboratory conditions. Phytother Res . 2002;16(1):23-27.

De Leo V, La Marca A, Lanzetta D, Palazzi S, Torricelli M, Facchini C, Morgante G. Assessment of the association of Kava-Kava extract and hormone replacement therapy in the treatment of postmenopause anxiety. Minerva Ginecol. 2000 Jun;52(6):263-7

De Leo V, la Marca A, Morgante G, Lanzetta D, Florio P, Petraglia F. Evaluation of combining kava extract with hormone replacement therapy in the treatment of postmenopausal anxiety. Maturitas. 2001 Aug 25;39(2):185-8

Gastpar M, Klimm HD. Treatment of anxiety, tension and restlessness states with Kava special extract WS 1490 in general practice: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter trial. Phytomedicine 2003;10(8):631-639.

Herberg KW. Effect of Kava-Special Extract WS 1490 combined with ethyl alcohol on safety-relevant performance parameters. Blutalkohol. 1993 Mar;30(2):96-105

Lehrl S. Clinical efficacy of kava extract WS 1490 in sleep disturbances associated with anxiety disorders. Results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. J Affect Disord 2004;78(2):101-110.

Pittler MH, Ernst E. Kava extract for treating anxiety. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(2):CD003383.

Scherer J. Kava-kava extract in anxiety disorders: an outpatient observational study. Adv Ther. 1998 Jul-Aug;15(4):261-9

Thompson R, Ruch W, Hasenohrl RU. Enhanced cognitive performance and cheerful mood by standardized extracts of Piper methysticum (Kava-kava). Hum Psychopharmacol . 2004;19(4):243-50.

Volz HP, Kieser M. Kava-kava extract WS 1490 versus placebo in anxiety disorders—a randomized placebo-controlled 25-week outpatient trial. Pharmacopsychiat . 1997;30:1–5.

Wheatley D. Kava and valerian in the treatment of stress-induced insomnia. Phytother Res . 2001;15(6):549-551.

Witte S, Loew D, Gaus W. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of the acetonic kava-kava extract WS1490 in patients with non-psychotic anxiety disorders. Phytother Res . 2005;19(3):183-8.


Chiaroni P, Azorin JM, Bovier P, et al. A multivariate analysis of red blood cell membrane transports and plasma levels of L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan in depressed patients before treatment and after clinical improvement. Neuropsychobiology . 1990;23(1):1-7.

Deijen JB, Orlebeke JF. Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress. Brain Res Bull . 1994;33(3):319-323.

Gelenberg AJ, Wojcik JD, Falk WE, et al. Tyrosine for depression: a double-blind trial . J Affect Disord. 1990;19:125-132.

Kelly GS. Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress. Altern Med Rev . 1999;4940;249-265.

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Neri DF, Wiegmann D, Stanny RR, Shappell SA, McCardie A, McKay DL. The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness.

Aviat Space Environ Med . 1995;66(4):313-319.

Thomas JR, Lockwood PA, Singh A, Deuster PA. Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1999 Nov;64(3):495-500.

Wagenmakers AJ. Amino acid supplements to improve athletic performance. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care . 1999;2(6):539-544.


Almeida Montes LG, Ontiveros Uribe MP, Cortes SJ, et al. Treatment of primary insomnia with melatonin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2003;28(3):191-196.

Andrade C, Srihari BS, Reddy KP, et al. Melatonin in medically ill patients with insomnia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry 2001;62(1):41-45.

Atkinson G, Buckley P, Edwards B, et al. Are there hangover-effects on physical performance when melatonin is ingested by athletes before nocturnal sleep? Int J Sports Med 2001;22(3):232-234.

Baskett JJ, Broad JB, Wood PC, et al. Does melatonin improve sleep in older people? A randomised crossover trial. Age Ageing 2003;32(2):164-170.

Braam W, Didden R, Smits M, Curfs L. Melatonin treatment in individuals with intellectual disability and chronic insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

J Intellect Disabil Res. 2008 Mar;52(Pt 3):256-64.

Campos FL, Silva-Junior FP, de Bruin VM, et al. Melatonin improves sleep in asthma: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;170(9):947-951.

Cardinali DP, Gvozdenovich E, Kaplan MR. A double blind-placebo controlled study on melatonin efficacy to reduce anxiolytic benzodiazepine use in the elderly. Neuroendocrinol Lett 2002;23(1):55-60.

Cardinali DP, Brusco LI, Liberczuk C. The use of melatonin in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroendocrinol Lett 2002;23(Suppl 1):20-23.

Carr R, Wasdell MB, Hamilton D, Weiss MD, Freeman RD, Tai J, Rietveld WJ, Jan JE. Long-term effectiveness outcome of melatonin therapy in children with treatment-resistant circadian rhythm sleep disorders. J Pineal Res. 2007 Nov;43(4):351-9.

Dalton EJ, Rotondi D, Levitan RD, et al. Use of slow-release melatonin in treatment-resistant depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2000;25(1):48-52.

Dodge NN, Wilson GA. Melatonin for treatment of sleep disorders in children with developmental disabilities. J Child Neurol 2001;16(8):581-584.

Dowling GA, Burr RL, Van Someren EJ, Hubbard EM, Luxenberg JS, Mastick J, Cooper BA. Melatonin and bright-light treatment for rest-activity disruption in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 Feb;56(2):239-46.

Jan JE, Hamilton D, Seward N, et al. Clinical trials of controlled-release melatonin in children with sleep- wake cycle disorders. J Pineal Res 2000;29(1):34-39.

Jan MM. Melatonin for the treatment of handicapped children with severe sleep disorders. Pediatr Neurol 2000;23(3):229-232.

Jockovich M, Cosentino D, Cosentino L, et al. Effect of exogenous melatonin on mood and sleep efficiency in emergency medicine residents working night shifts. Acad Emerg Med 2000;7(8):955-958.

Kayumov L, Brown G, Jindal R, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effect of exogenous melatonin on delayed sleep phase syndrome. Psychosom Med 2001;63(1):40-48.

Kunz D, Mahlberg R, Müller C, Tilmann A, Bes F. Melatonin in patients with reduced REM sleep duration: two randomized controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jan;89(1):128-34.

Leppamaki S, Partonen T, Vakkuri O, et al. Effect of controlled-release melatonin on sleep quality, mood, and quality of life in subjects with seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2003;13(3):137-145.

Paavonen EJ, Nieminen-Von Wendt T, Vanhala R, et al. Effectiveness of melatonin in the treatment of sleep disturbances in children with asperger disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2003;13(1):83-95.

Pillar G, Shahar E, Peled N, et al. Melatonin improves sleep-wake patterns in psychomotor retarded children. Pediatr Neurol 2000;23(3):225-228.

Smits MG, Nagtegaal EE, van der HJ, et al. Melatonin for chronic sleep onset insomnia in children: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Child Neurol 2001;16(2):86-92.

Suresh Kumar PN, Andrade C, Bhakta SG, Singh NM. Melatonin in schizophrenic outpatients with insomnia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007 Feb;68(2):237-41

Takeuchi N, Uchimura N, Hashizume Y, et al. Melatonin therapy for REM sleep behavior disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001;55(3):267-269.

Tjon Pian Gi CV, Broeren JP, Starreveld JS, et al. Melatonin for treatment of sleeping disorders in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary open

label study. Eur J Pediatr 2003;162(7-8):554-555.

Van der Heijden KB, Smits MG, Van Someren EJ, Ridderinkhof KR, Gunning WB.. Effect of melatonin on sleep, behavior, and cognition in ADHD and chronic sleep-onset insomnia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Feb;46(2):233-41.

Yang CM, Spielman AJ, D’Ambrosio P, et al. A single dose of melatonin prevents the phase delay associated with a delayed weekend sleep pattern. Sleep 2001;24(3):272-281.

Zhdanova IV, Wurtman RJ, Regan MM, et al. Melatonin treatment for age-related insomnia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86(10):4727-4730.

Multiple Vitamins

Benton D, Roberts G. Effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation on intelligence of a sample of schoolchildren. Lancet. 1988 Jan 23;1(8578):140-3.

Fletcher, R.H., Fairfield, K.M. 2002. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: clinical applications. JAMA. 19;287(23):3127-9.

Fletcher, R.H., Fairfield, K.M. 2002. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: scientific review. JAMA. 287(23):3116-26.

Fletcher RH, Fairfield KM. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: clinical applications. JAMA. 2002 Jun 19;287(23):3127-9.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Appel, L.J., Miller, E.R. 3rd, Seidler, A.J., Whelton, P.K. 1993. Does supplementation of diet with ‘fish oil’ reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med. 153(12):1429-38.

Bélanger, S.A., et al. 2009. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Paediatrics & Child Health 14(2):89-98.

Cicero, A.F., Ertek, S., Borghi, C. 2009. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: their potential role in blood pressure prevention and management. Current Vascular Pharmacology 7(3):330-7.

Colangelo, L.A., et al. 2009. Higher dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is inversely associated with depressive symptoms in women. Nutrition 25(10):1011-1019 2009.

Colter AL, Cutler C, Meckling KA. Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents: a case-control study. Nutr J. 2008 Feb 14;7:8.

Conklin SM, Manuck SB, Yao JK, Flory JD, Hibbeln JR, Muldoon MF. High omega-6 and low omega-3 fatty acids are associated with depressive symptoms and neuroticism. Psychosom Med. 2007 Dec;69(9):932-4. Epub 2007 Nov 8.

Conklin SM, Gianaros PJ, Brown SM, Yao JK, Hariri AR, Manuck SB, Muldoon MF. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intake is associated positively with corticolimbic gray matter volume in healthy adults. Neurosci Lett. 2007 Jun 29;421(3):209-12.

Frangou S, Lewis M, Wollard J, Simmons A. Preliminary in vivo evidence of increased N-acetyl-aspartate following eicosapentanoic acid treatment in patients with bipolar disorder. J Psychopharmacol. 2007 Jun;21(4):435-9.

Freeman MP, Hibbeln JR, Wisner KL, Brumbach BH, Watchman M, Gelenberg AJ. Randomized dose-ranging pilot trial of omega-3 fatty acids for postpartum depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2006 Jan;113(1):31-5.

Freeman MP, Hibbeln JR, Wisner KL, Davis JM, Mischoulon D, Peet M, Keck PE Jr, Marangell LB, Richardson AJ, Lake J, Stoll AL. Omega-3 fatty acids: evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Dec;67(12):1954-67.

Gapinski JP, VanRuiswyk JV, Heudebert GR, Schectman GS. Preventing restenosis with fish oils following coronary angioplasty. A meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 1993 Jul 12;153(13):1595-601.

Grenyer,-B-F; Crowe,-T; Meyer,-B; Owen,-A-J; Grigonis-Deane,-E-M; Caputi,-P; Howe,-P-R. Fish oil supplementation in the treatment of major depression: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Prog-Neuropsychopharmacol-Biol-Psychiatry. 2007 Oct 1; 31(7): 1393-6

Hallahan B, Hibbeln JR, Davis JM, Garland MR. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with recurrent self-harm. Single-centre double-blind randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2007 Feb;190:118-22.

Hibbeln, J R. Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers’ milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis. J-Affect-Disord. 2002 May; 69(1-3): 15-29

Jazayeri S, Tehrani-Doost M, Keshavarz SA, Hosseini M, Djazayery A, Amini H, Jalali M, Peet M. Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid and fluoxetine, separately and in combination, in major depressive disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008 Mar;42(3):192-8.

Hirashima F, Parow AM, Stoll AL, Demopulos CM, Damico KE, Rohan ML, Eskesen JG, Zuo CS, Cohen BM, Renshaw PF. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment and T(2) whole brain relaxation times in bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Oct;161(10):1922-4.

Johnson M, Ostlund S, Fransson G, Kadesjö B, Gillberg C. Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Children and Adolescents. J Atten Disord. 2008 Apr 30

Lin PY, Su KP. A meta-analytic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007 Jul;68(7):1056-61.

Locke CA, Stoll AL. Omega-3 fatty acids in major depression. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2001;89:173-85.

Nemets H, Nemets B, Apter A, Bracha Z, Belmaker RH. Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: a controlled, double-blind pilot study. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;163(6):1098-100.

Richardson AJ, Montgomery P. The Oxford-Durham study: a randomized, controlled trial of dietary supplementation with fatty acids in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics. 2005 May;115(5):1360-6.

Rogers PJ, Appleton KM, Kessler D, Peters TJ, Gunnell D, Hayward RC, Heatherley SV, Christian LM, McNaughton SA, Ness AR. No effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (EPA and DHA) supplementation on depressed mood and cognitive function: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2008 Feb;99(2):421-31.

Sinn N, Bryan J. Effect of Supplementation with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Micronutrients on Learning and Behavior Problems Associated with Child ADHD. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2007 Apr;28(2):82-91.

Sinn N, Bryan J, Wilson C. Cognitive effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A randomised controlled trial. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2008 May 29.

Sorgi PJ, Hallowell EM, Hutchins HL, Sears B. Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutr J. 2007 Jul 13;6(1):16

Stoll AL, Locke CA, Marangell LB, Severus WE. Omega-3 fatty acids and bipolar disorder: a review. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1999 May-Jun;60(5-6):329-37.

Stoll AL, Severus WE, Freeman MP, Rueter S, Zboyan HA, Diamond E, Cress KK, Marangell LB. Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 May;56(5):407-12.

Stoll AL, Damico KE, Daly BP, Severus WE, Marangell LB. Methodological considerations in clinical studies of omega 3 fatty acids in major depression and bipolar disorder. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2001;88:58-67.

Wozniak J, Biederman J, Mick E, Waxmonsky J, Hantsoo L, Best C, Cluette-Brown JE, Laposata M. Omega-3 fatty acid monotherapy for pediatric bipolar disorder: a prospective open-label trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007 May-Jun;17(6-7):440-7.

Yurko-Mauro, K. Omega-3 fatty acids may boost memory. Presented at Alzheimer’s Association 2009 International Conference on Alzheimer’s Disease.

No authors: Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto miocardico. Lancet. 1999 Aug 7;354(9177):447-55.

sphatidylserine (PS)

  Amaducci L. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: Results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988;24:130-134.

Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging(Milano). 1993;5:123-133.

Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1992;28:61-66.

Crook TH, Tinklenberg J, Yesavage J, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology. 1991;41:644-649.

Delwaide PJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, Hurlet A, et al. Double-blind randomized controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients. Acta Neurol Scand. 1986;73:136-140.

Engel RR, Satzger W, Gunther W, et al. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1992;2:149-155.

Funfgeld EW, Baggen M, Nedwidek P, et al. Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in Parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer’s type (SDAT). Prog Clin Biol Res. 1989;317:1235-1246.

Gindin J, Novikov M, Kedar D, et al. The effect of plant phosphatidylserine on age-associated memory impairment and mood in the functioning elderly. Geriatric Institute for Education and Research and Dept of Geriatrics; Kaplan Hospital; Rehovot, Israel; 1995.

Hellhammer J, Fries E, Buss C, et al. Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress. Stress. 2004;7:119-126.

Jorissen BL, Brouns F, Van Boxtel MP, et al. The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment. Nutr Neurosci. 2001;4:121-134.

Jager R, Purpura M, Geiss KR, et al. The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007 Dec 4.

Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Mauri PL, Scholey AB. Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007 Jun;22(4):199-210.

Kidd PM. A review of nutrients and botanicals in the integrative management of cognitive dysfunction. Altern Med Rev. 1999 Jun;4(3):144-61.

Maggioni M, Picotti GB, Bondiolotti GP, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1990;81:265-270.

Nerozzi D, Aceti F, Melia E, et al. Phosphatidylserine and memory disorders in the aged [in Italian; English abstract]. Clin Ther. 1987;120:399-404.

Palmieri G, Palmieri R, Inzoli MR, et al. Double-blind controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in patients with senile mental deterioration. Clin Trials J. 1987;24:73-83.

Villardita C, Grioli S, Salmeri G, et al. Multicentre clinical trial of brain phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with intellectual deterioration. Clin Trials J. 1987;24:84-93.


Anonymous. SAMe for depression. Med Lett Drugs Ther . 1999;41(1065):107-108.

Baldessarini RJ. Neuropharmacology of S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Am J Med . 1987;83(5A):95-103.

Bell KM, et al. S-adenosylmethionine blood levels in major depression: changes with drug treatment. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl . 1994;154:15-8.

Berlanga C, Ortega-Soto HA, Ontiveros M, Senties H. Efficacy of S-adeno-L-methionine in speeding the onset of action of imipramine. Psychiatry Res . 1992;44(3):257-262.

Bottiglieri T, Godfrey P, Flynn T, Carney MWP, Toone BK, Reynolds EH. Cerebrospinal fluid S-adenosylmethionine in depression and dementia: effects of treatment with parental and oral -adenosylmethione. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 1990;53:1096-1098.

Bottiglieri T, Hyland K, Reynolds EH. The clinical potential of ademetionine (S-adenosylmethionine) in neurological disorders. Drugs . 1994;48(2):137-152.

Bradley JD, Flusser D, Katz BP, Schumacher HR, Jr., Brandt KD, Chambers MA, et al. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of intravenous loading with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) followed by oral SAM therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol . 1994;21(5):905-911.

Bressa GM. S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) as antidepressant: meta-analysis of clinical studies. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl . 1994;154:7-14.

Carney MW, Toone BK, Reynolds EH. S-adenosylmethionine and affective disorder. Am J Med. 1987;83(5A):104-106.

di Pavoda C. S-adenosylmethionine in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Review of clinical studies. Am J Med . 1987;83(suppl 5A):60-65.

Fava M, Giannelli A, Rapisarda V, Patralia A, Guaraldi GP. Rapidity of onset of the antidepressant effect of parenteral S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Psych Res . 1995;56(3):295-297.

Fava M, Rosenbaum JF, MacLaughlin R, Falk WE, Pollack MH, Cohen LS, et al. Neuroendocrine effects of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, a novel putative antidepressant. J Psychiatric Res . 1990;24(2):177-184.

Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Efficacy of the dietary supplement S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Ann Pharmacother . 2001;35(11):1414-1425.

Fugh-Berman A, Cott JM. Dietary supplements and natural products as psychotherapeutic agents. Psychosom Med . 1999;61:712-728.

Gaby AR. Natural treatments for osteoarthritis. Alt Med Rev . 1999;4(5):330-341.

Gatto G, Caleri D, Michelacci S, Sicuteri F. Analgesizing effect of a methyl donor (S-adenosylmethionine) in migraine: an open clinical trial. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1986;6:15-17.

Glorioso S, et al. Double-blind multicentre study of the activity of S-adenosylmethionine in hip and knee osteoarthritis. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1985;5:39-49.

Jacobsen S, Danneskiold-Samsoe B, Andersen RB. Oral S-adenosylmethionine in primary fibromyalgia. Double-blind clinical evaluation. Scand J Rheumatol. 1991;20:294-302.

Konig B. A long term (two years) clinical trial with S-adenosylmethionine for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Am J Med . 1987;83(5A):89-94.

Leventhal LJ. Management of fibromyalgia. Ann Intern Med . 1999;131:850-858.

Maccagno A, di Giorio EE, Caston OL, Sagasta CL. Double-blind controlled clinical trial of oral S-adenosylmethionine versus piroxicam in knee osteoarthritis. Am J Med . 1987;83(suppl 5A):72-77.

Müller-Fassbender H. Double-blind clinical trial of s-adenosylmethionine versus ibuprofen in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Am J Med . 1987;83(suppl 5A):81-83.

SAMe for depression. Med Letter. 1999;41(1065):107-108.

Shekim WO, Antun F, Hanna GL, McCracken JT, Hess EB. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) in adults with ADHD: preliminary results from an open trial. Psychopharmacol Bull . 1990;26(2):249-253.

Tavoni A, Vitali C, Bombardieri S, Pasero G. Evaluation of S-adenosylmethionine in primary fibromyalgia. A double-blind crossover study. Am J Med . 1987 Nov 20;83(5A):107-110.

Vetter G. Double-blind comparative clinical trial with S-adenosylmethionine and indomethacin in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Am J Med . 1987;83(suppl 5A):78-80.

St. John’s Wort

Anghelescu, I.G., et al. Comparison of Hypericum extract WS 5570 and paroxetine in ongoing treatment after recovery from an episode of moderate to severe depression: results from a randomized multicenter study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2006 November; 39(6): 213-9.

Behnke, K., et al. Hypericum perforatum versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Adv Ther. 2002 Jan-Feb; 19(1): 43-52.

Bjerkenstedt, L. et al. Hypericum extract LI 160 and fluoxetine in mild to moderate depression: a randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter study in outpatients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005 Feb; 255(1): 40-7.

Brenner, R., et al. Comparison of an extract of hypericum (LI 160) and sertraline in the treatment of depression: a double-blind, randomized pilot study. Clin Ther. 2000 Apr; 22 (4): 411-9.

Farabaugh, A., et al. The relationship between early changes in the HAMD-17 anxiety/somatization factor items and treatment outcome among depressed outpatients. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005 Mar; 20(2): 87-91.

Fava, M., et al. A double-blind, randomized trial of St John’s wort, fluoxetine, and placebo in major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005 Oct; 25(5):


Findling, R., et al. An open-label pilot study of St. John’s wort in juvenile depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003 Aug; 42(8): 908-14.

Gastpar, M., Singer, A., and Zeller, K. Comparative efficacy and safety of a once-daily dosage of hypericum extract STW3-VI and citalopram in patients with moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2006 Mar; 39(2): 66-75.

Gastpar, M., Singer, A., and Zeller, K. Efficacy and tolerability of hypericum extract STW3 in long-term treatment with a once-daily dosage in comparison with sertraline. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2005 March; 38(2): 78-86.

Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. Effects of Hypericum perforatum (St John’s wort) in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 Apr 10; 287(14): 1807-14.

Kalb, R., Trautmann-Sponsel, R.D., and Kieser, M. Efficacy and tolerability of hypericum extract WS 5572 versus placebo in mildly to moderately depressed patients. A randomized double-blind multicenter clinical trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001 May; 34(3): 96-103.

Kasper, S., et al. Superior efficacy of St John’s wort extract WS 5570 compared to placebo in patients with major depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial. BMC Med. 2006 June 23; 4:14.

Kasper, S., et al. Placebo controlled continuation treatment with Hypericum extract WS 5570 after recovery from a mild or moderate depressive episode. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2007;157(13-14): 362-6.

Kasper, S., Dienel, A., and Kieser, M. Continuation and long-term maintenance treatment with Hypericum extract WS 5570 after successful acute treatment of mild to moderate depression – rationale and study design. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2004; 13(3): 176-83

Kasper, S. and Dienel, A. Cluster analysis of symptoms during antidepressant treatment with Hypericum extract in mildly to moderately depressed out-patients. A meta-analysis of data from three randomized, placebo-controlled trials. 2002 Nov; 164(3): 301-8.

Kieser, M., and Szegedi, A. Predicting stable treatment response in patients with major depression treated with hypericum extract WS 5570/5572. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2005 September; 38(5): 194-200.

Kobak, K., et al. St. John’s wort versus placebo in social phobia: results from a placebo-controlled pilot study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005 Feb; 25(1): 51-8.

Kobak, K., et al. St. John’s wort versus placebo in obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from a double-blind study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005 Nov; 20(6): 299-304.

Laakmann, G., et al. St. John’s wort in mild to moderate depression: the relevance of hyperforin for the clinical efficacy. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1998 June; 31 Suppl 1: 54-9

Lecrubier, Y., et al. Efficacy of St. John’s wort extract WS 5570 in major depression: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. AM J Psychiatry. 2002 Aug; 159(8): 1361-6.

Linde, K., et al. St John’s wort for depression: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Feb; 186: 99-107.

Linde, K., et al. St John’s wort for depression–an overview and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. BMJ. 1996 Aug; 313 (7052): 253-8.

Moreno, R.A., et al. Hypericum perforatum versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a randomized double-blind trial in a Brazilian sample. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2006 March; 28(1): 29-32.

Muller, T., et al. Treatment of somatoform disorders with St. John’s wort: a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Psychosom Med. 2004 Jul-Aug; 66(4): 538-47.

Murck, H., et al. Hypericum extract in patients with MDD and reversed vegetative signs: re-analysis from data of a double-blind, randomized trial of hypericum extract, fluoxetine, and placebo. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Jun; 8(2):


Philipp, M., Kohnen, R., and Hiller, K. Hypericum extract versus imipramine or placebo in patients with moderate depression: randomized multicenter study of treatment for eight weeks. BMJ. 1999 Dec; 319 (7224): 1538-8.

Randov, C., et al. The efficacy of St. John’s Wort in patients with minor depressive symptoms or dysthymia—a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine. 2006 Mar; 13(4): 215-21.

Schrader, E. Equivalence of St John’s wort extract (Ze 117) and fluoxetine: a randomized, controlled study in mild-moderate depression. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000 Mar; 15 (2): 61-8.

Shelton, R.C., et al. Effectiveness of St. John’s wort in major depression: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001 April 18; 285(15): 1978-86.

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