Hormone Evaluation and Replacement Therapy

Learn how both men and women—in various stages of life—can develop hormonal imbalances that can produce symptoms associated with mental health disorders and how optimizing hormone levels can help you feel like yourself again.

What is Hormone Evaluation and Replacement Therapy?

Are you feeling down and worried that you might have depression? Do you have memory problems or trouble focusing? Are you gaining weight and don’t know why? It could be your hormones!

Hormones are chemical messengers produced in the body that control and regulate the activity of certain cells or organs. Neurohormones have an important impact on the brain. The human body produces hundreds of hormones, but the following have a direct influence on mental health:

  • Thyroid—energy regulation
  • Estrogen—mood modulator
  • Progesterone—nature’s anti-anxiety hormone
  • Testosterone—mood, motivation, sexuality, strength
  • DHEA and Cortisol—managing stress
  • Insulin—manages blood sugar


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Why Choose Amen Clinics for Hormone Evaluation and Replacement Therapy?

At Amen Clinics we are experts in the brain-body connection. We have functional medicine physicians and nutritionists on staff who specialize in hormones and the regulation of body and brain function. Some hormonal imbalances, such as abnormal cortisol levels, can alter brain function and can impair memory and cause brain fog. Other hormonal imbalances can negatively affect mood and energy levels. Our specialists are trained in optimizing hormone levels to get you back to feeling like yourself again.


Neurohormones And The Brain

Communication between the brain and hormones goes both ways. The brain sends out signals that instruct your body’s glands to produce and release hormones, and hormones from within the body send messages back to the brain that influences its activity.When hormones are healthy, you tend to feel vibrant and energetic. When the hormones that affect your brain neurohormones are off, you are off. You may experience symptoms that change the way you think, feel, and act in negative ways. It also makes you more vulnerable to conditions like anxiety, depression, and even psychosis. If nobody checks your hormone levels, you will never know the root cause of your issues. And if your hormones are the problem, no amount of psychiatric medications will get you right.

Ready to learn more? Contact a care coordinator today!

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Thyroid: The Mood And Energy Regulator

The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located in your lower neck that plays a powerful role in keeping your brain and body healthy. This gland regulates how your body uses energy, and it also has a strong impact on the brain because it controls the production of many neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin, and GABA. Problems occur when thyroid dysfunction causes the gland to produce too little hormone (hypothyroidism) or too much hormone (hyperthyroidism).

Hypothyroidism: Brain SPECT scans of people with hypothyroidism show overall decreased brain activity, which often leads to depression, cognitive impairment, anxiety, and brain fog.

Hyperthyroidism: An overactive thyroid produces too much hormone, making everything in your body work too fast. It can feel like you’re in hyper-drive—you feel jittery and edgy, as though you’ve had way too much caffeine.

Common Symptoms of Thyroid Dysfunction


  • Fatigue
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Memory problems
  • Depression
  • Attentional problems
  • Psychosis


  • Fatigue
  • Sleeplessness, restlessness
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Racing thoughts
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Memory problems
  • Depression
  • Mania
  • Psychosis

Estrogen: The Mood Modulator

Estrogen is one of the primary hormones involved in a woman’s menstrual cycle. When estrogen levels are healthy and balanced, it helps optimize neurotransmitter production and brain function so you feel good all month long. When estrogen levels are off, it causes problems.

Too much estrogen in relation to progesterone: This can lead to a condition called estrogen dominance. This causes the gentle monthly hormonal rise and fall to turn into a series of intense spikes and dramatic drop-offs that disrupt important brain processes and make you anxious and irritable.

Too little estrogen: This leads to feeling depressed and confused. The loss of estrogen also hinders critical thinking, short-term memory, and other cognitive functions. These problems can worsen during perimenopause when estrogen levels can fluctuate wildly and during menopause when the hormone drops and stays low.

Common Symptoms of Imbalances

Estrogen Dominance

  • Mood swings, depression
  • Fatigue
  • Sluggish metabolism
  • Low libido
  • Headaches or migraines
  • Brain fog, memory loss
  • Weight gain, especially in the belly and hips
  • Thyroid dysfunction
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Fibrocystic breasts
  • Bloating
  • Vaginal or oral yeast (thrush)
  • Heavy bleeding
  • Carbohydrate cravings

Low Estrogen

  • Mood changes, depression, weepiness
  • Fatigue
  • Heart palpitations
  • Osteoporosis
  • Painful intercourse
  • Brain fog, memory loss, focus problems
  • Weight gain
  • Bladder incontinence and infections
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Pain
  • Hot flashes

Progesterone: Nature's Anti-Anxiety Hormone

Progesterone is the other major hormone in a woman’s monthly cycle. It affects the brain in the following ways:

  • Supports GABA, which helps the brain relax
  • Protects your nerves
  • Supports the myelin that “insulates” and protects neurons

When progesterone is in balance with estrogen, it calms you, brings feelings of peacefulness, and promotes sleep. But they are imbalanced or when the relaxation hormone drops too dramatically, calmness can give way to irritability, anxiety, depression, sleepless nights, and brain fog. For some women, when progesterone and estrogen plummet right before menstruation starts, mood stability goes out the window.

Common Symptoms of Low Progesterone

  • Anxiety/Depression
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Fibrocystic breasts
  • PMS
  • Premenstrual headaches
  • Postpartum depression
  • Bone loss

Testosterone: Moods, Motivation, and More

Most people associate testosterone with men. It’s true that this vital hormone drives the development of the male brain and is responsible for the deep voice, facial hair, and many other features we associate with maleness. But women produce and need testosterone too (just as men have some estrogen), just in smaller amounts.

In both men and women, testosterone helps protect the nervous system and wards off depression, cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease. The aging process, however, can leave some men with low testosterone levels that have been shown to increase symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as a host of other issues.

Common Symptoms of Low Testosterone

  • Moodiness
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Lack of motivation
  • Low libido
  • Fatigue
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Erection problems
  • Increased body fat and reduced lean muscle
  • Low bone density
  • Hot flashes
  • Hair loss

Cortisol and DHEA: Stress

The adrenal glands, located above your kidneys, play a vital role in how your body reacts to stress. When acute stress hits, the adrenals release a cascade of hormones, including adrenaline, DHEA, and cortisol as part of your “fight-or-flight response.” When the danger passes, your body’s processes return to normal—your muscles relax, your heartbeat and breathing slow to their usual rate, and your adrenals cut back on stress hormone production. When stress becomes chronic, the cocktail of harmful chemicals that come with it can overwhelm your body and contribute to brain health/mental health issues.

When cortisol levels get stuck on high, it also causes a spike in blood sugar and insulin levels. This leads to detrimental changes in the brain, including a drop in the calming neurotransmitter serotonin, leading to a range of psychological issues. Ultimately, high levels of cortisol increase the likelihood of developing lasting psychiatric conditions, such as anxiety, depression, or PTSD.

In the brain, chronic stress produces more white matter and fewer neurons (gray matter) than normal, skewing their balance and interfering with communication within the brain.

Common Signs of Adrenal Fatigue

  • Decreased ability to withstand stress
  • Morning and afternoon fatigue, lack of stamina
  • High blood pressure and rapid heartbeat
  • Abdominal fat that doesn’t go away, no matter what you do
  • Mental fog with poor memory and difficulty concentrating
  • Low sex drive
  • Craving for sweets or salty foods
  • Dizziness when getting up from a seated or prone position
  • Signs of premature aging
  • Lowered resistance to infection
  • Poor wound healing

Insulin: The Blood Sugar-Mood Connection

In the body, the hormone insulin is involved in regulating blood sugar levels. Your body’s cells need sugar (glucose) for energy, but they can’t absorb it directly from your bloodstream. That’s where insulin comes in. Released by the pancreas when you eat carbohydrates, insulin is like a key that unlocks cell membranes so they can get the glucose they need from the foods you eat.

If there’s too much sugar in your bloodstream, insulin signals your body to shuttle it to the liver for storage, which can eventually lead to fatty liver disease in some people. Another consequence of high insulin levels is that the body switches from breaking down and flushing dietary fat from the body to storing that fat, which over time, can lead to weight problems. One of the main consequences of chronically eating a high-sugar diet and obesity is a decrease in insulin’s ability to regulate blood sugar, leading to pre-diabetes and diabetes.

How do insulin and blood sugar levels affect your mind? Eating sugar or refined carbs causes blood sugar levels to spike and, subsequently, causes them to crash. This rollercoaster effect can impact your moods and mental wellbeing.

Common Signs of Blood Sugar (Insulin) Issues

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Schizophrenia
  • Irritability
  • Anger
  • Addiction to sugar
  • Trouble concentrating

Diagnosing And Treating Hormonal Imbalances

When appropriate, testing will be recommended to assess your hormone levels. If imbalances are found, hormone therapy may be recommended as part of a complete treatment plan. Many people think hormone therapy is just for menopausal women. In reality, however, women, men, and children—in various stages of life—can develop hormone imbalances and benefit from hormone therapy. Balancing your hormones can dramatically improve your quality of life in a short amount of time.

Hormone therapy can:

  • Increase energy and vitality
  • Balance moods
  • Soothe anxious feelings
  • Boost focus and concentration
  • Increase libido
  • Improve sleep
  • Reduce cognitive and memory problems
  • Minimize PMS symptoms
  • Decrease hot flashes associated with menopause

At Amen Clinics, we recommend bioidentical hormones, rather than synthetic ones, at individually customized dosages for maximum safety and effectiveness. In some cases, this can be referred to as bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT). Our personalized approach to treatment makes far better sense than a “one size fits all” approach—no two people are exactly the same, so why would their hormone levels be? And, since our bodies are so sensitive to hormone levels, our doctors order specific lab tests to help gauge the most precise dose for your unique needs.


“You Are Not Stuck With The Brain You Have.”

– Daniel G. Amen, M.D.


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