The Pros and Cons of Psychedelics in Psychiatry

In recent times, there has been a lot of hype surrounding the use of psychedelic drugs as potential treatments for mental health issues. The excitement about the possibilities of these mind-altering substances to relieve symptoms associated with a variety of mental health conditions is reaching a fevered pitch. But does the reality live up to the hype? And just how safe are these substances?

Although it’s true that some scientific research suggests potential mental health benefits from using psychedelics in a clinical setting, there are downsides too. Extreme caution is needed. Here’s what you need to know about psilocybin, ketamine, MDMA, and LSD.

Although it’s true that some scientific research suggests potential mental health benefits from using psychedelics in a clinical setting, there are downsides too. Extreme caution is needed. Click To Tweet


The term psychedelics refers to mind-altering drugs that can expand the consciousness and impact sensory perceptions. There are many such substances—some that occur in nature while others are chemical compounds developed in laboratories.

Four of the most commonly discussed drugs currently gaining traction in the field of psychiatry are psilocybin, MDMA, LSD, and ketamine.


Have you heard of “magic mushrooms?” These natural substances contain a psychoactive compound called psilocybin that can alter thoughts and perceptions and can cause visual and auditory hallucinations at high doses.

The psychedelic effects of psilocybin include feeling like time has slowed down, a sense of euphoria, seeing colors more vividly, thinking unusual thoughts, and seeing stationary objects appear to move.

In the 1960s, people began investigating using psilocybin for depression and addiction. In the 1970s, it was classified as a Schedule 1 drug, meaning it currently has no accepted medical use, and it has a high potential for abuse.


Commonly known as MDMA, ecstasy, or Molly, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (is a mood-altering chemical that produces enhanced sensory perception and feelings of closeness to others.

In the late 1970s, some psychiatrists began using MDMA because they believed it improved patient communications and gave patients greater insight into their mental health issues.

The DEA issued an emergency ban on it in 1985, classifying it as a Schedule I drug.


Discovered in the 1950s by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was made available to the psychiatric research community. By the following decade, over 130 studies on the substance showed that it produced positive results in a range of mental health issues, such as anxiety, depression, and alcohol abuse.

In the 1970s, however, following a surge in the recreational use of LSD and instances of “bad trips,” the drug was banned.


Developed more than half a century ago, ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic. It dulls pain and makes people feel dissociated from their body. This substance can have hallucinogenic effects and has been used as a recreational drug with the nickname “Special K.”

In the 1960s, practitioners began using the ketamine as a human anesthetic in the clinical setting. Subsequently, it has been used as a potential treatment for treatment-resistant depression and chronic pain relief.

Today, ketamine is a controlled drug and is classified as a Schedule 3 substance, which means there is a risk for abuse, but the risk is lower than with Schedule 1 drugs or Schedule 2 substances. Other Schedule 3 drugs include codeine and anabolic steroids.

On October 10, 2023, the FDA issued a warning stating that it has not approved ketamine for the treatment of any mental health disorder. In this warning, the FDA clearly states that it has not determined that ketamine is safe and effective for the treatment of mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).


Emerging research is investigating the use of psychedelics for the treatment of depression, anxiety, PTSD, addiction, and more. In the field of psychiatry, this typically involves microdosing, or administering very small amounts of the psychedelic substance.

This is intended to produce benefits without causing a “bad trip” or triggering intense hallucinatory effects. A very important caveat of microdosing psychedelics is that the drugs are administered by a trained mental health professional in a clinical setting.

The substances are used as a way to enhance psychotherapy, which is why this practice is referred to as drug-assisted therapy.

Be aware, however, that studies also point to potential downsides related to the use of mind-altering substances. This is why the use of these substances outside the clinical setting is not recommended.


The research on psilocybin remains mixed. Some studies point to potential benefits for the administration of this substance in a clinical setting while others show negligible benefits.

On the positive side, a 2021 study in JAMA Psychiatry involving 24 people with major depressive disorder, found that psilocybin-assisted therapy produced “large, rapid, and sustained antidepressant effects.”

Another research paper from 2021 in The New England Journal of Medicine on people with moderate to severe depression showed that treatment with psilocybin was equally effective as treatment with a common antidepressant (escitalopram, brand name Lexapro).

On the other side, scientific research in Scientific Reports shows that although psilocybin may work in the short-term, its effects are not long term. In fact, depression returns in a majority of people four to five months after a dose of the drug.

When it comes to side effects, a 2023 study in JAMA found that participants receiving psilocybin was linked to a higher rate of adverse events and more serious adverse events compared with participants who received a dose of niacin. 

Downsides: Some people who ingest magic mushrooms also experience negative reactions, such as anxiety, panic attacks, paranoia, feelings of fear and depression, nausea, and numbness.


MDMA may have some benefits for people with PTSD. A 2021 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 clinical trial appearing in Nature Medicine looked at the impact of MDMA-assisted therapy on individuals suffering from severe PTSD.

Following the treatment, 67% of participants no longer met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The researchers concluded that “MDMA-assisted therapy represents a potential breakthrough treatment that merits expedited clinical evaluation.”

That’s the good news. The not-so-good-news comes from a 2024 review in Neuropsychopharmacology. This review found that in phase 3 clinical trials, people receiving MDMA were 3.5 times more likely to experience adverse events compared to controls.

Downsides: Anxiety, jaw clenching, blurred vision, nausea, nausea, sweating, and chills are some of the unwanted effects of taking MDMA.


In a 2020 study looking at LSD and other psychedelics as possible depression treatments, the researchers suggested that “low doses of psychedelics could play a role in depression by inducing some kind of cognitive flexibility, which might lead to decreased rumination.”

Animal studies have found that side effects of microdosing LSD can last for weeks and include hyperactivity, heightened aggression, and difficulty feeling pleasure.


Downsides: The effects of this mind-alerting drug are unpredictable and can vary from one person to another. In high doses,

Numerous studies point to ketamine’s positive effects on major depressive disorder. Findings in a 2013 study in the American Journal of Psychiatry showed that in people with treatment-resistant depression, ketamine quickly triggered antidepressant effects.

Significant improvement in depressive symptoms among people taking ketamine was also noted in a 2017 review in Mental Health Clinician. In 2019, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved esketamine nasal spray—a derivative of ketamine—as a treatment for depression and treatment-resistant depression.

Downsides: Ketamine may be addictive and may cause high blood pressure, dizziness, and nausea.


Clearly, any mind-altering substance also has an impact on brain function. Here’s what the science shows so far about how psychedelics affect the brain.


A 2020 brain-imaging study in the journal NeuroImage looked at brain scans of people before and after taking psilocybin and found that the drug lowers activity in an area called the claustrum.

This brain region is believed to be involved with setting attention and shifting tasks, which may explain why people taking psilocybin.


experience feelings of connectedness and a lack of ego.

MDMA triggers the release of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Experts point to the heightened levels of serotonin as the primary basis for the feelings of euphoria that recreational users tend to experience.

After this surge of serotonin, however, levels of the neurotransmitter may become depleted, leading to negative psychological effects.

Long-term heavy use of MDMA is also associated with changes in regions of the brain associated with impulse control and attention,


working memory, visual information processing,

Research shows that this psychoactive drug works on a variety of receptors in the brain, including serotonin and dopamine.


Research shows that ketamine alters the way the brain’s neurons communicate. The substance binds to receptors that trigger the release of glutamate, an abundant neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in memory and learning.

A 2019 study in the journal Science suggests that ketamine promotes the growth of synapses in the brain.


Although some research is pointing to potential benefits of microdosing, there isn’t enough information yet to know how microdosing psychedelics in a clinical setting will affect the brain on a long-term basis.

More investigation on the use of psychedelics as a psychiatric treatment is needed to understand their lasting impacts on brain health and to establish how safe they really are.


Psychedelics in Psychiatry Table

Depression, anxiety, PTSD, and other mental health issues can’t wait. At Amen Clinics, we’re here for you. We offer in-clinic brain scanning and appointments, as well as mental telehealth, clinical evaluations, and therapy for adults, teens, children, and couples. Find out more by speaking to a specialist today at 888-288-9834 or visit our contact page here.


  1. Are there units in SC and NC and what is cost, insurance coverage.

    Comment by Kathy Mangum — October 6, 2021 @ 4:48 AM

  2. Please review and edit these epistles which can be sooo helpful. Really helpful. But to repeat “nausea” as a side effect for MDMA in a scholar-lite article is to reduce its credibility. It may be nitpicking, but my clients who wish to abuse these drugs will use these kind of errors to negate any rational discourse on the subject of drugs of abuse. Amen Clinics is frequently used by me to refute “street science “ of which there is far too much today. Thank you for your work. It is massively helpful.

    Comment by Ed poage — October 6, 2021 @ 4:48 AM

  3. I tried Ayahuasca. I had an amazing experience. I connected to planet earth and all my senses were enhanced while I was under the effects of the drink. My husband is considering a psychedelic experience for himself. What is your scientific knowledge of Ayahuasca?

    Comment by Elizabeth — October 6, 2021 @ 5:34 AM

  4. Very interesting topic. We will see where this goes.

    Comment by Timothy Lee — October 6, 2021 @ 6:02 AM

  5. I would be very interested in learning the effects of ketamine on people with Alzheimer’s disease.
    I also wonder if MDMA might be useful in helping people with Dissociative Identity disorders reintegrate their fragments.
    Thanks for this very interesting article!

    Comment by Nancz — October 6, 2021 @ 6:15 AM

  6. Thank you for writing this much needed information!

    Comment by Janet DaPrato — October 6, 2021 @ 6:50 AM

  7. I’m for a more healthy natural approach myself but am finding it impossible as an option. My 19 yr had a mental breakdown on Aug 13th. I’ve never seen this happen,ever! Then against family request to hospitalize him where we wanted he was sent to another mental hospital, returned with a black eye and ptsd so bad I’m having issues helping him now. Depakote, invega, remeron, are what’s being given now as round two and 2 mental stays later..yes all since the 13th. It’s the only thing keeping him somewhat stable. Not my choice but it’s better than a return to a locked up facility. This world needs changes ppl with brain traumas! Plz send us prayers.

    Comment by Janet — October 6, 2021 @ 7:27 AM

  8. I enjoyed reading this great overview

    Comment by Grant Schettler — October 6, 2021 @ 7:36 AM

  9. The article doesn’t mention that a single illegal pill of MDMA can sometimes cause death.

    Comment by Julia Lewis — October 6, 2021 @ 8:55 AM

  10. Hi, I have had chronic depression and anxiety most of my life. I’m a senior citizen , and I’d love to enjoy my later years with some relief.

    Comment by Debra Thompson — October 6, 2021 @ 10:45 AM

  11. You forgot to mention how MDMA has caused hart problems and death in people with pre existing conditions. Also, you left out Ayuaska, which is being successfully used to treat addictions.

    Comment by Vanessa — October 6, 2021 @ 11:49 AM

  12. Recently I had a slip and fall accident and broke my wrist . In the emergency room I was administered a sedative while they attemped to pull the fracture back in place. The dissociative state I experienced was far worse than the trauma of the accident and fracture. When I came to, I told them I thought I had died and come back to life . Ketamine was the culprit !! As a trained therapist I would not recommend this for my clients or anyone I care about .

    Comment by Kristin — October 6, 2021 @ 11:50 AM

  13. My 34 yo son has recently been diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum. Prior to that we tried many different treatments for his anxiety, depression, and OCD. Until he tried Ketamine therapy about two years ago, he had never really felt anything from any of the other treatments (TMS, ECT, and many medications). The Ketamine gives him energy to function and lifts his mood. The dosing and frequency are an ongoing trial but he benefits greatly from it. Psychotherapy will always be a part of his life, but we look forward to new advancements in mental health treatments as well.

    Comment by Jacquelyn Frank — October 6, 2021 @ 5:44 PM

  14. In the 1970s many psychiatrists did not know much about the brain, only Theories, thus it was a field that was taken full advantage of the ignorances. The drugs were used more out of testing the product/patient to diagnose symptomatically problems. As such being able to tell the people of events to happen in the future was deemed delusional/schizophrenia. Moods, depression, and way too many questions put a person into an introvertive state. Being allergic to some part of the drugs compound in the family of drugs made up of the same parts proved to cause psychosomatic events in various parts of my life that caused me to avoid any drugs. Thereby, with the questions of what is actually wrong and trying to prove what is not wrong has me in a dilemma with my doctors. Thereby bringing me to Dr. Amen’s Clinics to find out about his scans and trying to prove/disprove the theories of the past, find some solace in what is factual and being able to survive it all.

    Comment by Bruce R. Kuzma — October 6, 2021 @ 5:53 PM

  15. Ghey all sound like drugs to me. No mdntion of behavioral therapy being coupled with them for long-time maintenance without drugs. So, what are we doing? Trying to figure out what makes us feel better or just popping happy pills and not working on the fundamental problem causing our unhappiness. Sooo… just feeling good is now our ultimate goal even if we continue in patterns that shouldn’t feel good? Sounds like addiction over recovery wins. Shame. But, hey! Who isn’t game for feeling better with no effort? Who cares if we destroy our lives as long as we feel good! smh

    Comment by Lea Wright — October 6, 2021 @ 6:03 PM

  16. Hello Kathy, we currently have 9 locations nationwide: For more information about cost, insurance, and financing options, please contact our Care Coordinators:

    Comment by Amen Clinics — October 6, 2021 @ 7:01 PM

  17. K can sometimes lower inhibitions, i noticed [working in the O.R.] that patients preoperatively given K said some salacious things to the staff.

    Comment by bruce — October 7, 2021 @ 2:31 AM

  18. When I was 17 years old I did mushrooms and experienced anxiety for the following 10 years of my life. Biggest mistake of my life! Turns out I am allergic to psilocybin. Mushrooms completely ruined the trajectory of my life!

    Comment by Jacqueline — October 7, 2021 @ 6:36 AM

  19. I have a friend that has had much success on ketamine. It is something I would like to incorporate into my cognitive therapy. What locations are available in my area-Minnetonka, MN?

    Comment by Laurie Buell — October 7, 2021 @ 7:43 PM

  20. Hello Laurie, thank you for reaching out. Currently we have 9 locations nationwide:

    Comment by Amen Clinics — October 8, 2021 @ 7:38 PM

  21. LSD reuined my father. (Reference “Edgewood Arsenal human experiments — Wikipedia”) In the 1950’s my father participated in the U.S. Army Edgewood Arsenal Chemical Biological Center (currently Edgewood area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland) LSD Research which used “LSD as a means of temporarily replicating the effects of mental illness. ” My father volunteered for the LSD research trials as being a U.S. Government civil service employee. His career was as Chief of Engineers of Tanks (GS-13 1956-1959) Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland — so very intelligent with Outstanding Performance Awards annually in his profession. (His career started prior to WWII, then in U.S. Navy for duration of WWII, then rehired post war.) He often complained about the side effects of coming down off the LSD “trips”. He became very beligerant and abusive physically and mentally to my mother and us 6 children. In 1959 he lost his job and a began life of immense poverty from unemployment . He had incestuously attacked and tormented the children repeatedly for years and one neighbor child. Often having hallucinations that the Communists were going to kidnap him and his children and wife. Mother legally separated from him in 1965 and court ordered he not allowed near the children without police escort. He was never charged with incest. He became homeless the rest of his life. Veterans hospital diagnosed him paranoid schizophrenic early 1980’s and tried treatments but he would discharge himself AMA and return to living on the streets the rest of his life. Finally approximately age 65 when he was drunk was hit by a truck causing frontal brain damage (with intelligence of 18 month old) and loss of right arm. Lived out remainder of his life in Intermediate Care nursing home till died of pneumonia at age 73. The point is… this man before LSD trials was a loving, caring, supporting husband, very successful professionally in the U.S. Government, very intelligent, but then life deteriorated drastically while on LSD research trials resulting in major personality disorders. A waste of a human being. (I have written my Memoir and go into detail about all this — AND MAY GOD BLESS by RUTH ANN COMER published Covenant Books 04/13/2021.)

    Comment by Ruth — October 10, 2021 @ 3:20 PM

  22. I have been getting Ketamine infusions for over a year and a half. Antidepressants no longer worked for me. Ketamine saved my sanity. . Do your research before choosing a clinic. Also insurance does not pay.

    Comment by Bonnie Durante — October 12, 2021 @ 1:53 PM

  23. Drugs are not the answer

    Comment by Kellie — October 17, 2021 @ 8:51 AM

  24. I have little to say except OH MY GAWD, the subject of drugs is so controversial, look at all the people blurting all kinds of ignorance. Reading these comments alone, I realize how much damage the war on drugs has caused to peoples' psyches.

    Comment by Dicky Doo — March 10, 2023 @ 3:28 PM

  25. The proof is in the pudding, and the research results speak more than loud enough for anyone with an open mind to see how drastically the benefits of psychedelics tower above the consequences. Almost all negative experiences had are a result of the not knowing you had taken it, such as a doctor administering without telling you exactly what it is, error in dose measurement, or flat out stupidity people. Negative effects? Some. Does chemotherapy heal you completely of cancer or carry no downsides? No on both accounts and all drugs, prescription or recreational, fit that broad spectrum. Isolated negative occurences happen in every drug.

    Comment by Brandon Houser — June 22, 2023 @ 8:35 AM

  26. Psilocybin gave me total relief of anxiety, for the first time I can recall in my adult life. I take a minor dose a couple times a month and find my anxiety to be almost non existent, and my adhd much more manageable. It helps me be a better person.

    Comment by Frank — July 11, 2023 @ 3:20 AM

  27. Depression runs in our family. I have tried many antidepressants none worked until I tried Ketamine. I have been on it for two and a half years. It has given me my life back. It’s not fir everyone, but for me it works with no
    Side effects.

    Comment by Bonnie Durante — October 6, 2023 @ 9:41 AM

  28. This is from 21. Much science has changed. You need to update for the times. I'm surprised you reposted something so dated when the science is changing so rapidly. MAPS will have MDMA legal for you to prescribe early 2024.

    Comment by Brent — October 7, 2023 @ 7:31 AM

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